Sinusitis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Respiratory Diseases

The mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are a number of important functions for the body.This protection against pathogens (mucus, which has antimicrobial properties), this removal has fallen microparticles (multi-ciliated epithelium accelerates the removal of mucus and germs), this is adequate ventilation (air warming and the formation of the air stream).However, due to the fact that the mucous membrane forming a functional sinus and nasal cavity, and interconnected, the inflammatory process can "roam" from the sinuses to the nasal cavity and back.Most often affects the maxillary sinus - sinusitis develops , due to the structure of the sinuses themselves and their mouths.The second most frequent disease of the sinuses - a frontal .As the inflammatory process can seize the ethmoid cells (ethmoiditis) and sphenoid sinus (sphenoiditis).All these diseases are referred to as sinusitis.

There are inflammation of the mucosa of the maxillary (maxillary) sinuses - maxillary sinusitis,

frontal sinusitis - inflammation of the frontal sinus, ethmoiditis - inflammation of the ethmoidal labyrinth and sphenoiditis - inflammation of the sphenoid sinus.The disease can be unilateral or bilateral, involving in the process of a sinus or defeat all of the paranasal sinuses on one or both sides - the so-called pansinusitis.

Understanding

sinusitis Sinusitis - a general name for diseases of the paranasal sinuses.If the inflammation develops autonomous any particular sinus (or two like symmetrical from different angles), the diagnosis is reflected in the name of the affected sinus. Sinusitis - (maxillary or maxillary sinuses), sinusitis (frons Latin -. The forehead).When ethmoiditis involved in the process air cells of the ethmoid bone (the bone that separates the nasal cavity from the cavity of the skull).When sphenoiditis affected sphenoid sinus (the little guy the space located between the nasopharynx and the cavity of the skull - it is the "deep" sinus).Most often in hospitals treat inflammation in the maxillary and frontal sinuses, as well as their friendly defeat.This means that sinusitis - the most common disease and its relevance is clear to all, on everyone's lips this diagnosis.However, such frequent "Combined" diagnoses as gaymoroetmoidit, gemisinusit, polisinusit, pansinusitis.

in the development of sinusitis important role played by various infections of the upper respiratory tract, various pathological processes that occur in the nose, mouth, pharynx.Front and ethmoiditis have the same reasons as in inflammation of the maxillary sinus.Fronts is much greater than other inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.Acute ethmoiditis with bone lesions of the walls is observed mainly in scarlet fever.Sphenoiditis is rare and is usually associated with the disease posterior cells ethmoidal labyrinth.

Symptoms of sinusitis

catarrhal symptoms of sinusitis is nasal congestion, heaviness and pain in the head, in the projection of the sinuses.Symptoms of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses can be a pressing pain in the roots of the teeth of the upper jaw, and a feeling of "fullness" of the orbit (the bottom wall of the sinus - the roots of teeth, the upper wall of the sinus is both the lower wall of the orbit).This condition is called catarrhal sinusitis.If pressing pain is localized mainly on the bridge of the nose, the forehead, say catarrhal Front (inflammation of the frontal sinuses).

Symptoms purulent sinusitis (including sinusitis) exactly match those at catarrhal sinusitis, but the nose appears viscous yellow (purulent) discharge and can increase body temperature to 37,5-380.

When sinusitis occurs sense of tension or pain in the affected sinus, violation of nasal breathing, nasal discharge, disorder of sense of smell in the affected side, photophobia, and lacrimation.Pain is often diffuse, vague or localized in the forehead, temple, and there is at one and the same time of day.Body temperature is increased, it is often a fever.

at the front patients worried about the pain in the forehead, especially in the morning, disturbance of nasal breath and allocation from the corresponding half of the nose.The pain is often unbearable.In severe cases - eye pain, photophobia, and reduced sense of smell.Headache subsides after draining sinuses and resumed as drainage difficulties.

In acute influenza fronts body temperature increased, sometimes changing the color of the skin over the sinuses, marked swelling and edema in the forehead and upper eyelid.

When ethmoiditis worried headache, pressing pain in the root of the nose and the nose.Selections first serous, and then purulent.Sharply reduced sense of smell, significantly impeded nasal breathing.Body temperature increased.

When sphenoiditis complaints of headache.Most often it is localized in the area of ​​the crown, in the depth of the head and neck, eye socket.In chronic lesions of the pain is felt in the crown of the head, and may extend to the back of the head with large amounts sinuses.Sometimes patients complain of rapid decline.

Development

sinusitis Sinusitis is most often arise when, due to mucosal edema "blocked" sinus fistula and adequate drainage occurs.Constantly delayed produces mucus in the sinuses, and then promotes the growth of pathogenic microflora.Usually sinusitis develop against colds infections, and as a result developed a viral lesion of the mucous membrane of the sinuses.In such cases diagnosed catarrhal sinusitis.In the treatment of the common cold, usually with inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity passes and inflammation of the sinuses.However, due to a number of features (the structure of the mouth of the sinus, virulence (aggressiveness) of the microbe) in the sinuses begins development of secondary (bacterial) microorganisms.The process of "heavier" and developed purulent sinusitis.

Separately worth mentioning «odontogenous" sinusitis (cause of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus is in the teeth of the upper jaw).As already mentioned, the wells and the roots of the teeth are "issued" in the sinus cavity.In the treatment of these teeth may come into contact filling material into the sinus, and the material itself is a foreign body.There is an inflammatory reaction.At long stay of the material in the sinus cavity can join a fungal infection.Any infectious process in the teeth of the upper jaw (periodontitis) also leads to the development of odontogenic purulent sinusitis .

Diagnosing sinusitis

Diagnosis of acute catarrhal and purulent sinusitis is quite simple.The physician should carefully interview the patient, examine the nasal cavity and make rengenograficheskoe study of the paranasal sinuses.Accumulation of fluid (pus) in the maxillary and frontal sinuses on X-ray looks like a "liquid level".In this situation, to understand just enough.

with chronic sinus disease situation is a bit more difficult: to determine the foreign body, polypoid process, cysts, and other changes necessary to perform a CT scan of the paranasal sinuses.

Treating sinusitis

Acute catarrhal (viral) and sinusitis may be treated at home.It is enough to use drugs, relieving mucosal edema and accelerate the removal of stagnant content (Nazol, Otrivin, Rinofluimutsil, Sinupret).Worse, when developing purulent inflammation and should be regularly go to a clinic or hospital for treatment.In this state, it is necessary to wash the sinuses (method of moving fluids or "punctures" maxillary sinuses), to monitor the effectiveness of treatment, prescribe antibiotics and other medicines (anti-allergic, restorative, detoxification).With adequate treatment of acute sinusitis more than 10-12 days do not get sick.

In chronic sinusitis and sinusitis are not amenable to medical treatment is necessary to perform the operation.

In chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses ( chronic sinusitis ) necessary to perform the operation.Operation called maxillary sinusotomy .The purpose of it is sanitation (cleaning) the sinuses.This may be the removal of a foreign body or fungal colonies, removing polypous altered mucosa, the natural extension or imposition of artificial anastomosis, for better drainage of the sinus cavity.The volume of surgical intervention depends on lesion volume.In most cases the process is localized in the maxillary sinuses, but the opening of ethmoid cells may be required (when ethmoiditis), sphenoid sinus (if sphenoiditis).Again, there are many different techniques, from the traditional to the innovative (endoscopic).Details about the techniques of operations are available in each clinic using one method or another.It is worth noting that after such operations a short recovery period, complications are extremely rare, and most importantly, the effectiveness of these interventions reaches 95-100%

Complications sinusitis

complications of acute sinusitis may be a chronic process, and this in turn leads to frequent exacerbations, feeling of heaviness in the head, fatigue.Running processes lead to the degeneration of the mucous membrane, it becomes dysfunctional - protective of its properties are reduced.Continued worsening condition, develop neurological syndromes (headaches and facial pain), ear infections, intracranial suppurative complications develop.That is why it is so important in time to see a doctor and begin treatment of sinusitis.

Preventing sinusitis

Prevention sinusitis and other sinusitis is the same as with other diseases of the upper respiratory tract.Avoid hypothermia, carry out restorative procedures (sports, tempering).It is necessary to fight the disease has already begun, to clean up the immune system.When a cold is necessary to deal with it and take medications that reduce the swelling of the nasal mucosa.Most reliable prevention is obviously a medical control.