Tracheitis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Causes Symptoms and complications
Diagnosis Treatment Prevention tracheitis tracheitis
One of the most frequent manifestations of respiratory infections is tracheitis, and the syndrome is characterized by a typical one for each year of the expected epidemic of infections - influenza.
Tracheitis - a clinical syndrome characterized by inflammatory changes in the mucous membranes of the trachea, which is a manifestation of respiratory infections, flowing both acute and chronic.
To develop tracheitis can cause a number of reasons:
1) Infectious causes: viruses (influenza, etc.), bacteria (pneumococci, streptococci, staphylococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella, etc.), mushrooms.
2) Non-infectious causes (inhalation of supercooled air, inhalation of dust aerosols, chemicals, gases and vapors).
Risk factors for tracheitis similar to those of respiratory infections:
• natural factors (cold and windy);
• reduction of local immunity (frequent colds);
• immunodeficiency (related chronic diseases - liver disease, diabetes, asthma, COPD, emphysema, cancer and other age-related immune deficiency - young children, the elderly);
• bad habits (tobacco abuse is more, alcohol abuse).
source of infection in infectious tracheitis - a sick person or carrier.Even if the carrier signs of health violations there, and he looks no different from a healthy person, the patient has the clinical signs of tracheitis and / or acute respiratory illness and becomes infectious from the first day of symptom onset.
infection mechanism - aerogenic with airborne dust or airborne transmission paths.Dangerous fine mist sprayed by coughing and sneezing from the source of infection within a radius of 1,5-2 meters.We must not forget that for some infections, viruses can persist on the subjects of the environment (toys, furniture, scarves and towels, etc.).
universal susceptibility.Are ill more often children and the elderly (congestion in large collectives, the imperfection of the immune system).As for respiratory infections in general, there is a winter-spring season.
anatomical structure and location of the trachea
windpipe (trachea) is a cartilage tube, consisting of 15-20 cartilaginous rings, which are connected by fibrous ligaments.The mucous membrane of the trachea (and larynx) is covered with ciliated epithelium, it has an abundance of mucous glands and cells of the lymphoid tissue.Located trachea at the level of the cervical VI - V thoracic vertebrae, is located on top of the larynx, trachea and below the forks (bifurcation of the trachea) and passes into the bronchi.The diameter of the tracheal lumen ranges from 1.5 to 1.8 cm, length of about 11 cm main function -. Breathing.
Pathological changes in the trachea when it is inflammation characterized by the appearance of mucosal edema, congestion of vessels (mucous hyperemia) infiltration of tissues (accumulation of inflammatory cells), exudate on the mucosal surface of the mucus different amounts, with a viral infection pinpoint hemorrhages (the flu).If the process is lengthy (chronic tracheitis), the mucous becomes first hypertrophic, and later atrophied.mucosal hypertrophy manifested copious mucopurulent mucus, severe swelling of the mucosa, hyperemia.When atrophy shell pale with a grayish tinge, mucus is small, the shell is covered with crusts, which causes constant irritation and coughing.
Clinical symptoms of tracheitis
There are acute and chronic tracheitis, which have their differences and peculiarities.
Acute tracheitis appears on 2-3y days after the symptoms of the disease lesions rotor and nasopharynx, larynx.Patients temperature reaction of low grade (up to 38 °) to the febrile fever (38.5 ° and above).At the same time there are symptoms of intoxication (weakness, sweating, chills, headache and muscle aches).Patients may complain of stuffy nose or runny nose (for the nose), pain in the throat when swallowing, scratchy.
characteristic symptom tracheitis - appearance on the background of the above complaints of dry cough often at night, in the morning because of the accumulation of phlegm cough is usually enhanced.Despite the fact that the mucus in the trachea is, its selection cough difficult.In children, the cough may be paroxysmal, and it can be triggered by crying, frightened, laughing baby, sharp movements, too cold air.Related cough symptoms - feeling of rawness in the chest, sore throat.Even a deep breath can trigger attacks of dry cough Sore, so most patients breathing becomes shallow.
new symptoms may be connected with involvement of the adjacent respiratory tract.If the process involved the larynx, the cough becomes barking, painful, if there is inflammation of the bronchi picture bronchitis (cough becomes more frequent sputum appears - at first mucous, but with 3-5 days of the disease becomes mucopurulent character).Auscultation of the lungs, breathing becomes hard, dry or audible crackles.
chronic tracheitis may be a consequence of acute tracheitis, and other chronic inflammatory processes (inflammation of the nasal sinuses, nasopharynx).Rarely, patients concerned about the toxicity and fever.In most cases, cough - only a symptom of the chronic form of tracheitis.The cough is dry, painful, in the morning.Patients suffer for years.
Complications of acute tracheitis tracheitis
Isolated rarely leads to complications, are more dangerous to combine it forms.So, when laryngotracheitis to fear the possible development of a stenosis of the larynx (especially in infants), while traheobronhite - airway obstruction due to accumulation of mucous membrane secretion, and spasm.
prognosis for timely treatment favorable duration of the disease varies from 7 to 14 days.
tracheitis tracheitis is most often clinical and epidemiological.On questioning the patient turns out epidemiological history (contact with sick of SARS and ARI), a history of life (the presence of concomitant diseases, lifestyle, bad habits).Attention is drawn to the typical nature of the complaints - the appearance on the background of the symptoms of acute respiratory disease SARS, or dry painful, sometimes paroxysmal, cough at night and in the morning.In children, cough provoking external factors (crying, laughing, deep breath, temperature change, fear).Auscultation will change when traheobronhite (hard breathing, suzhie or crackles).
Inflammation in tracheitis
confirmed the diagnosis after laryngoscopy: tracheal mucosa hyperemic, edematous, sometimes petechial hemorrhages, an abundance of mucus, infiltration of tissue (hypertrophic tracheitis).In chronic course of tracheal mucosa pale gray, thin mucus is small, sometimes brown (atrophied tracheitis).
Tracheitis during laryngoscopy
Paraclinical study: complete blood count (leukocytosis, changes in leukocyte counts, depending on the cause of the inflammation, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate).
Treatment of tracheitis
1. Organizational-regime activities.
mild and moderate forms of tracheitis in combination with other symptoms of a respiratory infection
not be hospitalized and treated on an outpatient basis (at home), except for young children and those with co-morbidities (solved individually in these cases, the issue of hospitalization).During the entire period of the disease is a mechanically and chemically gentle diet (with the exception of acute, fat, limit fried food), extremely warm drinks (fruit drinks, tea, fruit drinks), drink plenty of liquids.On the chest are shown mustard.In the room where the patient regularly wet cleaning and air moisture (dry air provokes cough), airing.
2. Medication tracheitis
• Causal therapy is based on the causative agent.When a viral infection clinic
shows drugs with antiviral effect (Arbidol, izoprinozin EU reaferon, viferon, tsikloferon, Grippferon, viferon, amiksin or Lavomax, rimantadine, aflubin and others).When bacterial cause - antimicrobials group A beta-lactams (Augmentin, amoxiclav, flemoklav, flemoksin other) generation cephalosporins 1-3 (supraks, Fortum, zinatsev and others), and parenteral administration, if necessary.Narrowly specific antibiotics prescribed individually in the case of proven abjection.
choice of drug, dosage and course of treatment prescribed by the attending physician STRICTLY avoid complications and delaying the healing process!
• To intensify the causal treatment of the bacterial infection appointed IRS-19,
bronhomunal, Erespal, immudon.
• Means for cough appointed on the basis of accompanying symptoms of tracheitis.When dry cough
without the involvement of the bronchi process antitussives may be displayed (sinekod, glauvent, Tussin, tusupreks, libeksin, Gerbion with plantain), in the presence of hard outgoing sputum - mucolytics and expectorants (Thermopsis drugs, licorice, marshmallow, thyme,ipecac, mukaltin, Pertussin, bronholitin, gedeliks, bronhotsin, Ascoril, bromhexine, ambroxol, Lasolvan, ACC, mukobene).
3. Local therapy
• Inhalation therapy is carried out with the first symptoms of tracheitis.It can be as
steam inhalation and inhalation using a nebulizer (ultrasonic inhaler).Inhalation performed for 5-10 minutes depending on the inhaler 3-4 times a day for 5-7 days.Inhalation can be alkaline (baking soda), chamomile, sage, propolis.Medicines for inhalation only prescribed by a doctor.
• Local aerosols (kameton, Geksoral and other)
4. Folk remedies treat tracheitis
• inhalation of cooked onion and garlic mixture in a natural form twice a day;
• potatoes steam inhalation 2 times a day;
• black radish juice with honey (1: 1) 3 times a day;
• irrigation oropharynx raspberry leaf extract, calendula, 3-4 times a day (1-2 tablespoons of the leaves or flowers on 0.5 liters of boiling water - a thermos 1 hour);
• infusions succession, thyme, chamomile, elecampane, leaves mother and stepmother, licorice root (1-2 tablespoons herb to 0.5 liter of boiling water in a thermos 1 hour) - take 3 times a day before meals1/3 cup of infusion;
• ingestion of carrot and cabbage juice;
• decoction of kidney and young pine shoots (15 pcs kidney to 1 cup of boiling water, boil for 15-20 minutes), take 4 times a day;
• crushed garlic in boiling milk - cool and take 1 tsp4 times a day
• Honey inhalation, inhalation with eucalyptus.
Steam inhalation with tracheitis
- Avoid hypothermia, crowded in the autumn-winter-spring period.
- Hardening of the body in health period (rubdown, pouring cool water).
- Early treatment of chronic foci of infection and related diseases.
- timely initiation of treatment with ARI and ARI can prevent in some cases beginning tracheitis.
- Healthy lifestyle (nutrition, fresh air, exercise, vitamins), the fight against addictions.
infectious disease doctor Bykov NI