Pulmonary tuberculosis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Respiratory Diseases

Despite all the advances in modern medicine, tuberculosis continues to be one of the most common infectious diseases.According to WHO experts (World Health Organization) annual mortality from tuberculosis is more than 4 million people infected with tuberculosis every third inhabitant of the Earth, and this figure continues to grow annually.

Tuberculosis - an infectious disease caused by a pathogen belonging to the genus Mycobacterium.

Causes of pulmonary tuberculosis

causative agent of tuberculosis was discovered in 1882, scientists R. Koch, thereby still spread the name of Koch's bacillus.

Tuberculosis - typical infectious disease. Tuberculosis is caused by several members of the genus Mycobacterium.The greatest clinical significance are the following TB germs :

1) Mycobacterium.tuberculosis humanus.It has the greatest distribution.It is associated with the development of 85% of all cases of tuberculosis in humans.

2) Mycobacterium.tuberculosis africanus.As the name impl

ies, it is distributed mainly in Africa.The leading cause (90% of cases) of tuberculosis in the region.

3) Mycobacterium tuberculosis microti.Distributed among small rodents (mouse type).In humans, the disease causes, but rarely.

4) Mycobacterium.tuberculosis bovines.View pathogen that causes the disease in about 15% of cases.It is this kind of mycobacteria was the basis for the creation of BCG vaccine (BCG), used in our country.

significant properties of mycobacteria are pathogenic , ie the ability to live and breed in the organs and tissues of living organisms, such as humans.

mycobacteria also have a very pronounced virulence - the ability to multiply rapidly and cause the pronounced immune response.

Infection occurs mainly by airborne droplets .The probability of infection depends on the activity of the immune system of its own, the duration of contact with the agent and its concentration (delivered dose).In the presence of favorable conditions mycobacteria may persist in the environment up to six months.

very rare TB infection occurs when consuming contaminated food from diseased animals.This primarily dairy products and eggs.

from infection of exposure to development of symptoms (incubation period of tuberculosis) can take decades.

Under tuberculosis risk are people with chronic diseases (diabetes, chronic heart disease, HIV, etc.), migrants, refugees, homeless people, drug addicts, patients with mental illness, as well as persons who werein places of detention.

Symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis

In accordance with the clinical manifestations of tuberculosis and changes on chest radiograph isolated several clinical forms of tuberculosis.

Symptoms of tuberculosis consist of symptoms of intoxication and lung disease symptoms:

What tests need to take in suspected pulmonary tuberculosis

Required tests that need to do with suspected TB

Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

Curing TB can only bethe application of a whole range of anti-TB drugs.Schemes purpose applied dose and duration of treatment for tuberculosis defines a doctor.Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis for a long period and is calculated by months.In our country, pulmonary tuberculosis treatment takes tuberculosis and pulmonology.

Almost all anti-TB drugs can be divided into two groups: primary and backup.

main - is the most effective drugs with minimal side effects.It is with them start treatment in patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis.

More treatment of a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis

Prophylactic treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

With a sharp increase in the Mantoux test, and when other survey view changes yet, TB doctor may prescribe preventive treatment of tuberculosis 1-2-name drugs.At the same time it is suspected that a patient is very high risk of early stages of the disease.The usual duration of treatment is 2 months.

Spa treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

most important stage of the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis - a spa treatment.It is recommended that all patients in the convalescence (recovery), as well as lung disease severity.The method is not suitable for open forms of the disease, bacteriological miliary tuberculosis.Method of sanatorium treatment of tuberculosis some great shows in the complex treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in children.The positive effect is achieved due to the complex influence of climatic factors, physiotherapy, nutritional food.

Tuberculosis in pregnancy

Most often, the presence of tuberculosis is a contraindication for pregnancy maintenance.The fact that the development of pregnancy, the disease may be activated, and current treatment is extremely toxic to the fetus.In addition, the described cases of intrauterine fetal infection of tuberculosis from an infected mother.

TB treatment folk remedies

basis of the treatment of tuberculosis should be the official medicines "classical" medicine.Traditional methods of treatment and the means to take the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis only a supporting role, and can never replace a full-fledged drug treatment.

Several popular folk remedies and recipes from tuberculosis

Features of diet and lifestyle with pulmonary tuberculosis

great importance in the treatment of tuberculosis is proper nutrition.The patient during the treatment, and after it, too, must daily eat meat products, fresh fruits and vegetables.

Practice shows that daily consumption of milk and dairy products reduces the severity of some side effects of anti-TB drugs.
No alcohol during treatment!

Upon detection of TB cases is necessary to conduct a thorough disinfection of premises.

More Features diet and lifestyle with pulmonary tuberculosis

Tuberculosis in children

Unfortunately, tuberculosis in children as often as in adults.In childhood TB is often characterized by more severe, due to the age characteristics of the immune system.Most observed disseminated (widespread) forms of the disease, the development of tuberculous sepsis, the emergence of extrapulmonary foci (tuberculosis, kidney, tuberculous meningitis, etc.).Often, TB long-accepted and treated as a prolonged or chronic bronchitis.

Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in children is carried out according to the same principles as in adults.

More Pulmonary tuberculosis in children

Possible complications of pulmonary tuberculosis and forecast

Tuberculosis - a very serious disease, the occurrence of which may lead to the development of a number of complications.Typical are the occurrence of pulmonary bleeding or hemoptysis, pulmonary or cardiopulmonary failure, pneumothorax (due to violation of the integrity of the lung tissue air enters the thoracic cavity, resulting in complete or partial law decay and the development of lung respiratory failure), etc. amilidoz

development of pulmonary tuberculosis is almost always leads to sclerosis of the lung tissue, scarring and calcification.The prevalence of these "residual" phenomena depends on initial size and focus on the clinical form of the disease.

If untreated, the death rate from tuberculosis reaches 50% during the first two years of the disease.

Tuberculosis prevention

greatest importance in the prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis plays timely identification of active MbT, their isolation and early treatment.

mass vaccination against tuberculosis BCG vaccine does not protect against the disease (analyze the situation: vaccinated almost 100% of the population, and patients do not become less), and is the prevention of severe forms of the disease.

great importance in the prevention of tuberculosis has adequate nutrition.The daily diet should contain adequate amounts of protein, vitamins and calories.Experience shows that people are sitting voluntarily or involuntarily on diets are more likely to get tuberculosis.

Answers to frequently asked questions on the topic of pulmonary tuberculosis:

Under what symptoms may be suspected of tuberculosis?

The child was given the direction of the x-ray light, which would eliminate tuberculosis (Mantoux test an increase over the year from 3 millimeters to 10 millimeters).Does radiation exposure is dangerous?The child is 5 years old.

How often can I do Mantoux test?

How long the child is being treated in hospital and whether it is possible to reside there with the child?

When removed from the register after the treatment of tuberculosis?

What further examination should be made in tubes.dspansere about manta rays bend when urine, blood, and chest x-ray is normal and there is shown, in this case, preventive treatment (allergic child)?

Can I opt out of the annual Mantoux test with contraindications and how to replace it?

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