Mastitis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Mastoiditis - an inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone.Mastoid - the place of attachment of muscles, allows you to make pan and tilt head.Anatomically, it is located immediately behind the auricle and outgrowth is a bone having a cavity inside, connected to the cavity of the middle ear.Only a small bone plate this cavity is separated from the cranial cavity.Inside the mastoid bone are thin jumper, located like a honeycomb.The formation of these bridges occurs gradually after birth to 5-6 years.
penetration of infection in the mastoid cavity in most cases comes from the middle ear cavity.That is mastoiditis is a complication of acute otitis media.Penetration of infection from the outside is possible with trauma directly mastoid, sepsis (blood infection), or suppuration of the lymph nodes in close proximity to the mastoid.
Symptoms of mastoiditis mastoiditis
Symptoms depend on the extent of the process, the pathogen that caused the damage, and treatment.
first stage, when only observed the process of inflammation in the lining of the mastoid process, is indistinguishable from acute otitis media develops in parallel with it.The predominant symptoms ear pain, fever, headaches and the appearance of discharge from the external auditory canal with independent artificial or perforation of the eardrum.
In the absence of proper treatment of otitis media at this stage (usually earlier discontinuation of antibiotics and the lack of proper drainage of the middle ear cavity), after the improvement of the general condition appears again increasing, the pus becomes more dense.It appears soreness and redness behind the ear in the mastoid.At this stage, the accumulation of purulent secretions in the cells inside the bone.Pus destroys thin bony bridge and fills the entire cavity (empyema of the mastoid).
second stage mastoiditis
Symptoms next stage - it's complications symptoms.They depend on the place of a breakthrough pus wall of the mastoid process and disseminate it to the adjacent organs and tissues.
most favorable course at this stage can be called the penetration of pus beneath the outer shell of the bones (periosteum) and, after the break, under the skin.Favorable this option, of course, conditional, due to the minimal effects in comparison with the others.In this case, there is redness, an increase in volume and increased pain in the process, and under it, sometimes the appearance of the hole (fistula) and isolation through it pus.
breakthrough of pus into the middle and inner ear will lead to labyrinthitis.The patient appears severe dizziness, persistent hearing loss, tinnitus, rhythmic jerking of the eyeballs for no apparent reason (nystagmus).
In the vicinity of the cavity of the middle ear and mastoid facial nerve passes.If the inflammation gets into this area, the functions affected.The patient or his surrounding note the asymmetry of the face, drooping corner of the mouth and eyes with a sore hand, the inability to close the eyelids, face becomes masklike.
The most severe complication of mastoiditis is a breakthrough of pus in the cavity of the skull.This can lead to conditions such as the development of brain abscess, inflammation of the meninges and the substance of the brain (meningitis and meningoencephalitis), as well as the sigmoid sinus thrombosis.
sigmoid sinus is a special vessel, discharging blood from the brain.Unlike veins, its wall thicker, and the valves have never fallen down.Penetration into it infection leads to inflammation of its walls and thrombus formation on them, which leads to a fatal sepsis, vascular occlusion and cerebral circulatory disorders.
To suspect and confirm the diagnosis of mastoiditis is necessary to consult a general practitioner or an otolaryngologist (ENT - physician).After examination and questioning of the patient the patient will receive directions to the general blood test and X-ray examination.
Complete blood count will have a picture of the inflammatory response, such as increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cells.
X-rays (CT scans or X-rays of the mastoid) reveal signs of inflammatory changes within the mastoid bone area of the melting and containment breakthrough of pus, if any.In the case of suspected complications of mastoiditis decision on further doobsledovanii taken individually.
Treatment of mastoiditis
After confirmation of the diagnosis treatment is given depending on the stage of the process.It should be noted that in such a situation is preferred stationary regime.It is mandatory to be appointed massive antibiotic therapy, often intravenously, the creation of adequate outflow of the contents of the inflammation field through the ear canal.If the process is caught at an early stage, it is possible conservative treatment under the constant supervision of a physician.
With the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment for 1-2 days, and as soon as the operation is carried out during the development of complications.It lies in the opening of the wall of the mastoid bone on the outside (behind the ear) and mechanical (with tools) and chemical (with medication) removal of the affected tissues and installing a drainage system.The latter allows you not only to timely remove the newly formed inflammatory exudate, but also to carry out local treatment.A drainage tube is introduced into the process cavity anti-inflammatory drugs.
Self-treatment, failure to comply with medical advice and lack of monitoring of the passage of treatment can lead to wear of the painting process, mastoiditis transition into the chronic stage, which greatly complicates the diagnosis and treatment.
worth noting that mastoiditis is most often diagnosed in children, the elderly, patients with diabetes, HIV infection.Children mastoid is not yet filled with jumpers and is a single cavity (antrum), which is easily covered by inflammation in otitis media.Besides imperfection immunity and frequent colds increase the likelihood of infection in the middle ear.
Older people and those suffering from diabetes often worn picture of disease, reduced sensitivity, the absence of symptoms or underestimated against the backdrop of age-related decline of immunity can lead to complications.Most elderly patients with age regularly take painkillers to suffer hearing loss, which complicates the primary diagnosis.
Thus, prevention of mastoiditis include the following measures:
- timely and complete treatment of otitis media, with the exact implementation of the recommendations of the attending physician.
- observation from one specialist to evaluate constantly treated with the passage of time and the time to notice the onset of complications
- the use of antibiotic drugs recommended by your doctor, and the doctor recommended rate.
Mastoiditis - quite a dangerous disease.But at a time when medical assistance and antibiotics so available, it does not occur very often.And it is very easy to avoid, if strictly follow doctor's instructions.Take care of yourself.
therapists Moskvina AM