Sensorineural hearing loss ( cochlear neuritis ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Diseases Of The Ear

peripheral Department of the auditory analyzer - a complex system consisting of three sections: the outer, middle and inner ear.Each of the units has a number of components.

outer ear - auricle and the external auditory canal.

middle ear - Cave with the mastoid, tympanic cavity containing the auditory ossicles (incus, malleus, stapes), Eustachian auditory tube and tympanic membrane.

The inner ear consists of the cochlea (sound-part) and the semicircular canals (peripheral vestibular analyzer department).That is due to the complex structure and a wide range of diseases of the ear.

Sensorineural hearing loss - non-communicable diseases of the inner ear.In this disease suffer from auditory nerve and, accordingly, the sound reproduction.The main symptom is hearing loss, often accompanied by the subjective tinnitus.More often talk about the acute and sub-acute sensorineural hearing loss as well as the treatment is effective only when these forms of the disease.This disorder affects people of all vozras

nyih groups, but with age, in varying degrees, reduced hearing of all the people.This condition is called presbiakuziya (age-related hearing loss).The main cause of these conditions is the atrophy of nerve endings zvukovosprinimayuschego the organ of Corti.It is important to know that when the diagnosis is chronic sensorineural hearing loss , hearing, unfortunately, can not be restored.

Overview of sensorineural hearing loss

Synonyms are the sensorineural hearing loss, cochlear neuritis, neuritis of the auditory nerve (the last two terms are inaccurate, because the ending "um" indicates inflammation, but inflammation in the disease such as the auditory nerve is not).

Separately need to say what clinical forms of the disease has.The criterion is its remoteness:

  • to 4 weeks - acute sensorineural hearing loss - treatment efficiency is 70-90%,
  • from 1 month to 3 months - subacute sensorineural hearing loss - the effectiveness of the treatment of 30-70%,
  • 3 months - chronic sensorineural hearing loss - the effectiveness of treatment is questionable

symptoms of sensorineural hearing loss

Often after suffering acute respiratory viral infection, emotional stress, intoxication symptoms of the disease.The main symptom of hearing loss is sensorineural hearing loss.May be affected as the one ear or both.A very common symptom of this disease - it is noise in the ear.It can be a high-frequency (ringing, squeaking, "buzzer"), that more and low-frequency (hum).These events require immediate treatment to the doctor.

Causes of sensorineural hearing loss and risk factors for hearing loss

uniquely harmonious scheme of pathogenesis of sensorineural hearing loss identify sometimes difficult.However, it is known that among the causes of this disease may be several.Foremost among them are infectious viral disease - influenza and SARS, infectious parotitis (mumps).Another main cause of sensorineural hearing loss are trophic disorders of the nervous tissue (vascular disorders, poor blood supply).The cause of poor nerve supply is atherosclerosis, hypertension, vegetative-vascular dystonia.A special place is occupied with hearing disorder as a result of strong emotional stress.The defeat of the auditory nerve can occur due to traumatic brain injury, acoustic trauma (short, but extremely powerful sound - a shot, shout, whistle).There are a number of chemical substances that have ototoxic effects.It is industrial and household substances.Very often the cause of sensorineural hearing loss is the prolonged use of ototoxic drugs - is antibiotics (aminoglycosides), antimalarial agents, salicylates.

There is such a form as idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss is when the cause of the defeat of the organ of hearing to identify reliably fails.Very rarely the case when a young active, healthy people unfortunately irrevocably lose hearing for no apparent reason.

Prevention sensorineural hearing loss prevention

rules are simple - the avoidance of risk factors.It is necessary to promptly treat upper respiratory tract infection, take all the drugs only on prescription.Of particular risk are persons working in a toxic, noisy production;also harmful vibration.In such cases it is necessary to observe all safety measures and adhere to the labor regime (with the noise in the headphones to work, making more frequent short breaks in work).These people need to change jobs when the first symptoms of sensorineural hearing loss.In the absence of such a possibility must be observed at the otolaryngologist every 3 months and the courses take preventive drugs (tanakan, trental)

Complications sensorineural hearing loss

Since the disease is not infectious nature, and is limited only by the defeat of the inner ear, the secondary complications of this disease is not present.However, in the absence of treatment and prevention of the disease progresses and leads to complete deafness with minimal recovery probability.It is important to as quickly as possible to begin treatment for symptoms.

Diagnostics sensorineural hearing loss

On examination, no visual changes in the ear is not defined.It is important to elaborate events preceding the hearing loss of life.The doctor suspected sensorineural hearing loss, can perform kamertonalnye sample.To verify the diagnosis and accurately determine the degree of hearing loss is performed by hardware research - tonal threshold audiometry (information available in the relevant section).If results of this study diagnosed with 100% accuracy.

Treatment of sensorineural hearing loss

In the early hours of the appearance of noise in the ear and hearing loss should immediately consult a doctor. Sensorineural hearing loss is treated in the hospital, becauserequires a comprehensive treatment.It consists of a "dropper" includes preparations improving blood circulation in the brain, reinforcing metabolism of nervous tissue.Also included in the treatment hormonal and diuretic drugs with the aim antiedematous.Very important vitamins group B (thiamine (vitV1) and pyridoxine (vitV6)).After discharge, it takes a long time to take courses tablet formulations (tanakan, trental) as a prophylactic measure.It is important to understand what happens and so, when the aim of treatment is not the restoration of hearing, becauseNervous tissue is partially destroyed forever.However Mee is important in such a situation to stop the hearing loss process

radical treatment permanently lost hearing is a cochlear implant surgery.With this operation, thousands of Deaf and Hard of Hearing children around the world have regained the joy of communicating with the outside world, these children are able to learn and achieve results sometimes better than their peers.A whole team of experts from the surgical pathologists to carry out a course of long-term rehabilitation, which allows production to full life in society.