Insomnia - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
«Good night, good dreams" - is a wish we hear every day, and plunge into the most mysterious condition - a dream in which and spend a third of his life.Dreams captivated the human imagination since ancient times.The ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, and Greeks, and the Indians believed that in dreams there is a sense, hidden from the eye of prophecy and secret messages.
Composition and legends and tales about the "Sleeping Princess", the people who were buried alive in a lethargic sleep, wandering about in the dream the people under the influence of the moon ... Two thousand years philosophers have only simulated the definition of the nature of the illusory dream world.Dreams are dreams all - color and black - white, real and unreal, we ourselves and people around us, and mysterious creatures, good and dreadful, with sound and silent.The dream lasts from minutes to half an hour.Not everyone remembers their dreams.It was at this time a person is resting, the body repairs itself - in REM sleep.
brain during sleep processes the information, emotions, keeps them, it is an active exchange of information between the conscious and the subconscious, between short-term and long-term memory is formed by a program of human behavior.Without sleep people can hold a maximum of 200 hours.No sleep lost a sense of humor, emotion, memory, creativity, speed of response, reduced immunity and performance of the whole organism.
What is a dream?Our brain can work normally, when neurons are active.But neurons can be active only if they are supported by specific chemical substances secreted centers wakefulness - neurotransmitters.Brake brain cells, "embedded" in the waking system, scattered throughout the brain (the most in the substantia nigra) is isolated by the main brake brain substance - GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid).Once active neurons weaken and brake immediately weaken them even more, replaced by bioelectrical brain activity and sleep comes.REM sleep triggers acetylcholine, glutamic and aspartic acid, produced by cells of the pons, brainstem.
Paradoxical sleep - awake neurons, eyeballs move, and the body is not present.The so-called "third eye" - the pineal gland - is involved in the regulation of sleep.At night, it produces a substance - melatonin, causing severe drowsiness.An important role in the pathology of sleepiness is given, and prostaglandins D3, such as traumatic brain injury, meningitis, African "sleeping sickness."Thus - a dream - it is a complex biochemical, bioelectric processes.
first stage of sleep - REM sleep, nap 5 - 10 minutes.The second stage - a shallow sleep - 20 minutes, then another 30-50 minutes, 3 or 4 stages - slow and deep REM sleep.Then he repeated the second step, which occurs after the first episode of REM sleep - five minutes.Next stage is repeated, slow wave sleep stage decreases and increases rapidly, the last episode of sleep may last an hour.
structure provides sleep are in the hypothalamus, the bridge, the medulla oblongata, blue spot, some areas of the cerebral cortex.
Causes of insomnia
Insomnia - a disorder characterized by the inability to fall asleep or sleep, frequent awakenings.Clinically, this disorder is estimated subjectively as perceived by the patient dissatisfaction with the amount and quality of sleep, lack of feeling of rest after sleep.
insomnia arises for diseases physical and mental depression, Parkinson's disease, encephalitis, arthritis, asthma, hyperthyroidism, prostatic hypertrophy, degenerative nervous system diseases, kidney disease, heart failure, with nervousness, fatigue, alcohol and drug abuse.
disrupt sleep can a good dinner, a strong emotional experience, romps, strong coffee and tea before going to bed, smoking.Chronic sleep disruption can cause medications - anticonvulsants, b - blockers, antipsychotics, antidepressants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
March 19 is celebrated the day of sleep.dissomnii problem (sleep disorder) is very relevant.In developed industrial cities is increasing the level of sleep disorders.Over 10% of the population suffers from insomnia, every second one of the common symptoms of sleep disorders.
Reduced sleep duration from - social problems - troubles at work, uncertainty about the future.Scientific - technical progress - electronics, internet, telephones, TVs - the flow of information does not relax and surrender to sleep.The problem of sleep disorders are engaged in scientific-research institutes and laboratories, neuroscientists and neurologists.Fully sleep mechanisms, changing its stages and cycles of sleep disorders, especially REM sleep has not yet been studied.Management mechanisms of sleep - waking located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the pineal gland.Obviously, in the processes of sleep - waking influence and environmental factors - entering the human body with food, water, and stress factors, especially emotional stressors.Sometimes a word, without causing physical harm, causing a cascade of neural and hormonal reactions as a result of which a person loses sleep.
remains virtually unknown mechanism of action of stress factors on the change of the phase of slow and fast sleep.We study the role of specific proteins (regulatory peptides) are widely distributed in the brain and the body and plays an important role in physiological processes.
Everyone knows a rare sleep disorder - sleepwalking or sleepwalking (somnambulism).Sleeping man walks around the house, then returned to bed and does not remember anything about the night accidents.
believed that it was a dream, in which parts of the brain responsible for movement, excited.Yet much more rare sleep disorder - lethargy - an unnaturally long sleep, from days to months and even there watching when a man had slept 20 years).Lethargy is possible with epidemic encephalitis, a large overdose of certain medications, very strong fatigue.
If insomnia is penalized for a daily rhythm of everyday life, you need to see a doctor for diagnosis.
To diagnose insomnia, there are various methods.For example, a rating scale Epworth sleepiness.Have you ever drowsiness in public places, while reading, watching TV, lying day after dinner, in the car when stopped at a red light?Responses were scored on a 4-point grading, where 0 - no sleepiness.
full medical examination and inspection are carried out to eliminate the above-mentioned serious diseases in which sleep disturbance - the only symptom.
There are difficulty falling asleep, intermittent sleep, frequent awakenings, early awakening.According to the severity may be mild and severe insomnia.Often the patient sleep disorders puts on the first place and ignores the somatic pathology and neurosis.Treat the cause of need!
Treatment Drug-free treatments for insomnia - is the formation of sleep ritual, various methods of preparation for sleep, develop a conditioned reflex to certain actions that lead to bed and falling asleep.Therapy control over stimuli prepares the patient to sleep - go to the bedroom, the bed spread out, draw the curtains, lie down, relax and sleep.Sleep restriction therapy is that the patient is given the residence time in the bed equal to the duration of its sleep and gradually increased to 15 - 20 minutes a week, until it reaches the required level.Relaxation techniques are used to calm the excitation and overstimulation, as a preparatory stage.
And do not count sheep - so you never fall asleep .
Cognitive therapy is to help get rid of the fear of insomnia.If before going to bed you will think that before going to bed, you do not go to sleep - do not fall asleep all night.
Snoring leads to insomnia, others, and the snorer during snoring deprived of REM sleep stages.
Paradoxical intention - the patient can be made to believe that he does not want to sleep and he needs to stay awake - he falls asleep.
We need to get used to the sleep hygiene - diet, exercise, proper conditions in the bedroom - lighting, noise, temperature, bedding, use of pads with hops, aromatic candles, sedative teas.
need to go to bed at the same time, do not eat before going to bed, do not drink before going to bed soft drinks, cola, coffee, alcohol.Do not go to bed irritated, do not go if you do not want to sleep.Create a comfortable environment for sleep.Freshen the air (air conditioner, humidifier ...).
Develop stereotype - I go into the bedroom, I spread out the bed ... then I'll sleep.And do not think that does not go to sleep.Independently can take sedatives fees tableted herbal medicines - new pass, dormiplant, valerian, glitsised, Sedavit.Valerian can be taken for a long time, believe that it increases levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid.The effectiveness of hypnotic action occurs within 2 weeks.Improve sleep mint, lemon balm, blackberry leaves.
Drug therapy is short - 10 - 15 days, use the lowest effective dose should be, you can start with alternating doses - 2 - 4 times a week, lifted gradually.
1. first-line pharmacotherapy is:
- benzodiazepines - reduced time to fall asleep, and the frequency of nighttime awakenings, increased duration of sleep, increasing the braking effect of GABA - kvazepam, estazolam, flurazepam, triazolam, temazepam;
- nebenzodiazepinovyh - zopiclone, zaleplon, zolpidem, Ramelton.
2. Second line: tricyclic antidepressants - amitriptyline, doxepin, antihistamines.
Hypnotics appoint a doctor.Each sleeping pills has its pros and cons, indications and contraindications, and decide exactly what you need - it is the doctor.To remove the drive, use the alarm Atarax, afobazol, adaptol, Noofen.It is shown in a medical complex - psychotherapy, reflexology, warm coniferous - bubble baths, aromatherapy, hypnosis, electric, music therapy, sanatorium - resort treatment.
Consultation of a neurologist on insomnia
Question: Does honey is used in the treatment of insomnia?
A: Honey is completely harmless and can be used to treat sleep disorders.There are many popular recipes using honey: honey in a cup add 3 teaspoons of apple cider vinegar, stir and take 2 teaspoons at bedtime;Mix 1 tablespoon honey with 1 cup of warm water and drink before going to bed;Mix 1 cup of lemon juice, 2 tablespoons of buckwheat honey, 2 tablespoons pounded walnuts and take 1 tablespoon at bedtime.
Question: What herbal teas can be used for insomnia?
answer applies many folk and herbal recipes, such as:
- peppermint, watch a three-sheeted, valerian (rhizomes), hop cones equally.Spoon collection pour a glass of boiling water, leave for half an hour to drink 100 ml 3 times a day;
- rhizomes of valerian, motherwort, hawthorn flowers, peppermint, mistletoe - mix in equal parts.Spoon collection pour a glass of boiling water, half an hour, drink 1 glass in the morning and at night
- hop ordinary, peppermint - 1 part;melissa leaf, chamomile flowers, buckthorn bark brittle, rhizome with the roots of valerian - 2 parts.Spoon collection in a glass of water, boil for 15 minutes.Take 1-2 cups of the night;
- 2 tablespoons of dry hawthorn fruit comminuted to 1.5 cups of boiling water.Drink in 3 receptions for 30 minutes before meals;
- 1 tablespoon crushed red elderberry root per cup of water, boil for 15 minutes on low heat, infuse half an hour, drain.Take 2-3 times a day for 1 tablespoon.
Use valerian, oregano, St. John's wort, willow-herb, lavender, onion, mint, oats, lemon balm, motherwort, fennel, hops ...
preparation of infusions can be considered also as psychotherapy - is selected herbs are ground, are stirred, the person calms down plusbreathes aromas of herbs.Produced necessary ritual - a conditioned reflex - it's time to sleep.
question: how fast to sleep?
Answer: If the cause of your insomnia does not have anything to do with any illness, it is sufficient simply to take a warm bath with aromatic additives (valerian, lavender), a cup of tea with soothing herbs and lie down in a warm bed.Good sleep helps meditation, during which your body relaxes, and chase away other thoughts.
I wish you sleep!
doctor - a neurologist, SV Kobzev