Alzheimer's Disease - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Nerve Disease

German psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer in 1906, described the degenerative disease, subsequently named after him - an irreversible progressive senile dementia.

August AD patient Alois Alzheimer.1901 .Reasons

Alzheimer's disease in 2000 godu 12 million people with currently registered growth of the disease have been reported in the world.Perhaps matters increased life expectancy and the trend towards aging of the population.Age over 65 - the main risk factor for the disease.After 85 years, women often suffer.

words "Alzheimer's disease" inspire fear in the people.It is a progressive disease in which broken higher mental functions - memory, thinking, emotions, identifying himself as a person and even the closest people around them.With the passage of time appear and physical problems - impaired strength and balance function of the pelvic organs.Man disappears as a person loses the ability to self-service and fully dependent on nursing care.

BoleznAltsgeymera 60 - 70% of the cause of dementia.The de

velopment of dementia in Alzheimer's disease is caused by degeneration of neurons in the cortex and the limbic system of the brain, violation of synaptic connections due to the accumulation of beta-amyloid oligomers and tau protein.In accordance with the most prevalent theory today for Alzheimer's disease, brain form insoluble amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein.The number of plaques and tangles increases progressively violated interneuronal communication, functioning neurons and ultimately - their of the brain atrophy, damage to capture the entire brain.Changes in the brain develop gradually over 10 - 20 years before the clinical onset of the disease.

the exact mechanisms and causes of the disease, as well as biomarkers, is still unknown.


There are two forms of Alzheimer's disease - sporadic, which accounts for 90% of the disease and the family, which starts at an earlier age - up to 50 years of age and is caused by a rare genetic mutation.

In the course of the disease are distinguished 4 stages - preddementsiyu, early dementia, severe dementia.

first symptoms - is mild cognitive impairment - memory disorders.It is difficult to recall and remember new information, interpret it, is broken abstract thinking, it is difficult to understand the meaning of words and their relationships.indifference - Appatov appears.Such a condition can last up to 8 - 10 years.

further memory impairment progresses, speech disorders appear, the sequence of actions.It becomes less fluent vocabulary poorer, harder to express their thoughts.There are fine motor coordination disorders - it is difficult to put on, fasten buttons, write, draw.

With the progression of the disease lost reading and writing skills.The patient replaces forgotten words new (paraphrase).It violated already and long-term memory and the patient no longer recognize family members.There are behavioral problems - irritability, aggression, vagrancy, crying ... Disrupted function of pelvic organs - there is urinary incontinence.

In the last stage we lost almost completely, develops complete apathy, exhaustion.The patient is totally dependent on nursing care.

survey in Alzheimer's disease

diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is difficult.Therefore it is very important to the detailed description of the changes and the state of human behavior, often by relatives or employees.The sooner treatment is started, the longer you can maintain cognitive function of the brain.

Seek need a neurologist (to rule out other neurological diseases) and a psychiatrist.

Pay attention should be on the repeatability of the same issues and stories, the prevalence of memories of current events, confusion, violation of habitual doing household chores (shopping, paying bills, cooking ...), disorientation, lethargy, changes in personality characteristics, dezoroientatsiyu intime.

take a comprehensive survey with mandatory magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, test intellectual function, blood tests.

most informative is a photon - emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography, which allows you to see amyloid deposits in the brain.Sometimes the diagnosis is confirmed by histological analysis of postmortem brain tissue.

for neuropsychological tests is set to breach the eight functions - memory, language, perception, constructive abilities, orientation in space and time, in his personality, ability to solve problems of functioning and self-service.To study the cognitive disorders neurologists increasingly using the MMSE, psychiatrists - a more detailed tests.

The differential diagnosis is carried out with other dementias.

On stage development are the search for objective blood markers and cerebrospinal fluid for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, for example, the assessment of the various peptides derived from the amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid-beta 42, phosphorylated tau protein and overall levels of tau protein.

time that elapses from diagnosis to death different and depends on the person's age, sex, severity of cognitive impairment at diagnosis, general health, lifestyle, nutrition, education levels.If a patient over 80 years - the forecast is unfavorable, the expected life time - 3-4 years, with the disease at a younger age may live 10 years.The true cause of death is not the Alzheimer's disease and exacerbation of comorbidities -pnevmoniya, bedsores ...

treating Alzheimer's disease

Medications that can cure the patient suffering from Alzheimer's disease, there is currently no.
For the treatment of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease cholinesterase inhibitors used - donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmign NMDA-antagonist- memantine.Supplementation with a constant gradual increase in dose.Cere does not cure the disease, but is a unique neuroprotective drug that slows the progression of dementia.

The combined treatment using antioxidants and substances that improve blood flow to the brain, microcirculation, hemodynamics, reduce cholesterol.

prescribe drugs doctors - neurologists and psychiatrists.Symptomatic treatment of mental disorders appoints psychiatrist.

relatives is important to understand that the behavior of the patient's disease is to blame, not the person, and to be tolerant, learn to care for the ailing, to ensure his safety, nutrition, prevention of pressure sores and infections.

necessary to streamline the regime of the day, you can make labels - a reminder that you need to do, how to use household appliances, sign photos unrecognizable relatives ... stressful situations for the patient should be avoided.

stimulates the methods of treatment is music therapy, art therapy, crossword puzzles, exercise, socializing with the animals.As long as possible is necessary to support the physical activity of the elderly person.

prevention of Alzheimer's disease

currently no proven prevention of Alzheimer's disease.There are associations with the probability of developing the disease - a diet correction, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, intelligent load.It is recommended to adhere to the Mediterranean diet, eat fruits, vegetables, wheat, cereals, olive oil, fish, red wine, vitamins - B12, B3, C and folic acid.Curcumin (turmeric spice root), cinnamon, grape seed extract, coffee -perhaps have protivoamiloidnym action.Studies in mice confirm this action.

High cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, depression is associated with the risk of more severe Alzheimer's disease.Knowledge of multiple languages ​​stimulates brain activity.The higher the human intellect, his intelligence, education, language skills, reading, the greater the load gets the brain - the greater the chance of avoiding dementia defer its beginning or mitigate the disease.Causes the brain to work!

neurologist Kobzev SV