Disorders of muscle tone in children : hypertonicity , hypotonia , dystonia - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Nerve Disease

Tone - a muscle strain, which is necessary to maintain body posture and ensuring its movements.The right balance of tone various muscles - a condition for proper economical movement.

muscle tone of newborn

Developing abdominal my mother, the child is in a fetal position: legs bent at the knees, slightly apart and pressed against her stomach, arms bent at the elbows pressed to his chest, his fingers clenched in fists, thumbs pressed tothe palms, the head is located on the midline, the position of the left and right sides are symmetrical.The muscles of the child at the same tense.After the birth of a child during the month continues to maintain this position.However, the rate of muscle should not be too stressful - you can straighten the limb, to unclench fists.Before year of life increased muscle tone physiological, that is a normal variant, and in the flexor muscle tone above and below and in extensor tone necessarily symmetrical .With age, approximately 6 months to tone gradually decreases evenly.D

etermine the muscle tone as resistance to passive movements.A normal newborn held horizontally on the abdomen (on doctor's hand) there is extension of the head, torso and legs (Landau reflex).

If pen and toddler legs strongly pressed to the body, it is difficult to straighten them, and the baby cries, throws back his head, irritated responds to light and sound - it muscular hypertonicity - excessive muscle tension .Hypertonicity can be common at gemitipu - the same name arm, leg, only the hands, feet only.

symptoms hypertonia the child

If the child is listless, languid arms and legs lie along the body, the baby moves a little, is not trying to take a toy, roll over to keep my head - it hypotonia - reduced muscle tension .

Asymmetry of muscle tone and - on one side of the body tone more than the other.In this case, the head and the pelvis is rotated in the direction of tight muscles, torso bent arc, the child leans on its side.

Dystonia - uneven tone - a combination of hyper and hypotonia. Asymmetry tone and dystonia at any age is not an option standards.

Causes of muscle tone

Disorders of muscle tone - it is always a problem in the central nervous system - the brain or spinal cord.Changes in muscle tone - muscle dystonia - is not a disease but a symptom.Reason violations may occur before or during birth.This, for example, diseases of the mother during pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, alcohol and drug use, smoking, medication, stress, multiple pregnancy, rapid delivery, induction of labor and benefits, or hypoxia (lack of oxygen), asphyxia (suffocation).Violation of muscle tone in neonates and infants most often due to hypoxic - ischemic encephalopathy.This brain damage is the result of two causes: hypoxia and ischemia (impaired blood supply to the tissues, leading, in turn, hypoxia).

diseases that may involve a breach

tone Reduced muscle tone with neuro - muscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy, poliomyelitis, neonatal myotonic dystrophy, congenital myopathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, myasthenia gravis, botulism.Toxic disorders of neuromuscular transmission may cause hypotension in the newborn.For example, if the mother had used magnesium sulfate for the treatment of pre-eclampsia, the gipermagniemiya may cause hypotension.Admission aminoglycosides can also cause disturbances of the neuromuscular.

Increased muscle tone in brain diseases - infections, injury, disease, underdevelopment of the brain - cerebral palsy.

dystonia - abnormal postures arising from the simultaneous contraction of muscles - twist or bend the body axis, the speech - dysarthria.Depending on the number of involved muscle groups can be generalized dystonia (torsion dystonia) or focal (blepharospasm, spasmodic torticollis, writer's cramp).


Identification of muscle tone disorders requires observation, comparison with the presence of other symptoms of developmental disorders.It is necessary to address to the neurologist, who will examine the child appreciate his condition, appoint additional methods of inspection and conduct a differential diagnosis with listed and very serious diseases if necessary.Use ultrasound techniques - echo electroencephalography, cranial ultrasonography;computer diagnostics - magnetic resonance imaging;examination of the muscles and nerves - electroneurogram.If you suspect myasthenia will have to examine the thymus gland.genetic methods - molecular may be used in a number of diseases.If

tone disorders cause is not established, talking about AEDs (perinatal encephalopathy).

Treatment tone disorders in child

With the exclusion of serious diseases early treatment leads to complete recovery.So do not put off a visit to a pediatric neurologist.If left untreated, will lead to a violation of the tone of skeletal deformities, joint, movement disorders, and common development.

Treatment should be complex, designated the pediatrician, orthopedist and neurologist:

  1. kinesitherapy - treatment of movement;
  2. akvagimnastika;
  3. drug therapy.

Kinesitherapy can be passive - a variety of massages and passive and active exercises - corrective medical gymnastics and swimming.You can use the gym ball - fitball.

gentle massage is performed to remove the hyper - relaxing and soothing.Used stroking and rubbing his fingers and the whole hand, acupressure.Massage should not lead to crying child and hypothermia.This will increase muscle tension.There is a lot of muscle relaxation techniques - embryo pose, shaking for Phelps, playing on the ball, massage Semenova (effective even when ICP), the convergence of muscle attachment sites, acupressure.

in warm water reduces muscle tone - you can use the warm bath - pine, valerian, swimming in a circle, the game moments in the bath.Such baths and exercises in the water well to soothe baby to sleep day and night.

Exercises with hypertonia limbs that parents can spend with your child on a daily basis at home are different depending on which muscles in good shape, but the principle one.1. The child lies on his back, the adult strokes his knobs and / or legs (with high tone), respectively, from the shoulder to the fingers, from the hip to the fingers.2. Extension spastic limbs and fingers gently stroking movements from the palm to the fingertips, from heels to fingers.Circular motion hand or foot in a clockwise or anti-clockwise.3. shaking limbs, holding the baby carefully for little fingers.Cheredoat with the next exercise - 4. The pose of the embryo, hands and feet pressed against his stomach.5. Exercise on the ball, which helps to form a support on the foot - the baby legs is placed on the rough surface, the ball placed on the tummy (not too large), adult shakes a ball back and forth, left and right.These exercises are recommended with your child every day, always in the sequence.They significantly accelerate the healing process.

Physician at hypertonia can be assigned to treatment with paraffin wraps (to moisten the gauze in hot paraffin, fold in 3 layer shift cellophane and even triple layer of cheesecloth - be sure not to hot, wrap and fix the limb in maksismalno unbent condition, course duration of at least10 days to 20 minutes a day), kids - electrophoresis.

under reduced tone massage is more intense, stroking deeper with pressing the brush on the massaged area muscles, rubbing the second phalanges with a fist brush, effleurage, tingling, tapping (with his relaxed fingers and side brush surface), the exciting stimulatingpoint acupressure.

Medication appoint a neurologist, it is used usually at a hypertonia, dystonia, asymmetry (one year only with dystonia and asymmetry).Perhaps the use of neuroprotective agents, antioxidants, muscle relaxants.Can be used in the treatment of children cerebrolysin pantokaltsin, Semax, solkoseril, Mydocalmum, baclofen, B vitamins

What you need is your child select a pro.

Prevention disorders of muscle tone

Prevention dystonia - is primarily a healthy mom, exception of harmful habits, monitoring of pregnancy and fetal development, studies with newborns, carrying with it the health massage and charging, developing child care, comprehensive medical examinations fortimely diagnosis and appropriate assistance measures.

Doctor's consultation on a violation of muscle tone in the child

Question: sooner you can begin to massage?

A massage in the form of stroking and rubbing begins with the first two weeks later is already more intense massage and added a special charging exercises.

Question: a massage mom can do herself?

answer begins with the toes of the foot massage, with the little finger - click, move, stroking, twisting and pulls.Go to the foot - push for fingers - fingers are compressed, click on pyatochku - fingers - unclenched.Drawing on eight foot baby.Make a recess at each stop in his side.Spending on the heels to each finger.Screw the foot on the finger the masseur.Take the legs together and simulate running - we stamp on the table, draw a promenade eight.Stroking the legs from the feet up to the joints.We do kneading, easy motion, a circular motion around the knee and hip.Make a dilution of the hip joints, knees fixing arms - exercise "book."We go to the tummy and make stroking motion clockwise, push your fingers around the navel and twists - "bell" to strengthen the muscles of the abdominal wall.Take the hand fingers - stroking them, then stroking up around the shoulder.

Internal surfaces are not massaged.Stimulating grasping reflex, we raise a child.Overturn on his tummy and stroked the back muscles along the spine tingling and mash ass.When the tone and slap tapping can not be done.Take the baby in her arms cuddle back and simulate simulator - cant child forward - he is trying to hold back.With older, you can even play - take up a toy from the table.

Mom can learn this general massage and escort him home.However, special techniques and motion may be added depending on meshechnogo tone.In order not to hurt the baby, first you need to show it to the doctor, visit a professional masseur, and at home to repeat the necessary movements.

Question: whether massage hurt?

answer can.Improper conduct of massage can further increase the tone of the spastic muscles and relax the muscles so sluggish, disrupt the movement of the joints.

Question: that is a symptom of "floppy baby"?

Answer: The term "floppy baby syndrome" combines the cases of hypotonia in infants - a violation of the head fixation (hangs head), posture "frog" in the supine position.Muscular hypotonia may be due to lesions of the central and peripheral nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, nerve - muscle synapse, muscle disorders and systemic diseases - hypothyroidism, Down's syndrome.Most of all - it is atonic type of cerebral palsy.Syndrome "floppy baby" may be a manifestation of degenerative diseases, such as Tay-Sachs disease, Krabbe disease, leukodystrophies.When cross-fetal presentation may cross the spinal cord lesion.A newborn will first hypotonia and weakness below the level of the lesion, and go into spastic tension over time.Another terrible option - Polio - a viral infection that affects the motor neurons of the spinal cord.Diagnosis of the disease - it is the children's neurologist.Prevention - compliance with immunization schedule!Engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment is unacceptable.

hypotonia caused by polio

neurologist Kobzev SV