Encephalitis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Nerve Disease

Encephalitis - inflammatory diseases of the brain.Distinguish primary encephalitis - epidemic encephalitis (saving disease), tick-borne (spring - summer), encephalitis, viral meningoencephalitis two-wave, panencephalitis (demyelinating encephalitis childhood) and secondary - the influenza, malaria, measles.

Epidemic encephalitis (lethargic encephalitis savings encephalitis A).

first observed in 1915 - 1916 in France and Austria in the form of epidemic outbreaks among soldiers.Described for the first time savings in the 1917 and Geymanovichem Raymistom in 1920.After the First World War in 1920 - 1926 years was the pandemic of "classical form" of epidemic encephalitis.

causative agent of the disease - filterable virus not isolated to date.Path of transmission - airborne.In the acute stage in the matter of the brain it causes inflammation, affecting the hypothalamus, the basal ganglia, the nucleus of the oculomotor nerve.In the chronic stage develops toxic - degenerative process most pronounced in the s

ubstantia nigra and globus pallidus.

For clinic epidemic encephalitis is characterized by a triad of symptoms:

• common symptoms - headache, fever up to 38 degrees, malaise;
• pronounced sleep disturbance - from drowsiness to soporous state from 7 - 8 days to a month or more;
• oculomotor disorders: ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid), diplopia (double vision), ophthalmoplegia (no movement of the eyeballs).Rarely it may result in the development of the facial nerve paresis of mimic muscles, the trigeminal nerve pain in the face, there may be sporadic seizures.

Currently, the acute stage - lethargic or oculo-cephalic changed somewhat.Periods of drowsiness are replaced by insomnia, sleepiness during the day there and insomnia at night.There was a vestibular form - attacks with vertigo, nausea, vomiting, headache, photophobia.

more modern version - psevdonevrastenicheskaya form - irritability and weakness after a short nedomaganiya with temperature and light oculomotor disturbances.Hyperkinetic form - a short acute phase (headache, fever, drowsiness) and 1 to 3 months appear convulsions, violent motion - twitching, hiccups, worm-like movement of his fingers, turns - jerking his head.This form is characterized by particularly severe.Grippoidnaya form - erased the acute period - 1-2 days cold in the chest and then gradually developed parkinsonism.

chronic stage of epidemic encephalitis - the development of Parkinson's disease (from a few weeks from the disease up to 1 - 2 years).Gradually increases the change in muscle tone, leading to impoverishment and slowing of movement (bradi- and oligokineziii).Later develops shaking, tremor - rigid or akinetic - rigid form of Parkinson's disease or a combination thereof with various sleep disorders.Movement of the patient shackled, shakes his head and hands, facial expressions absent, excessive salivation, slow monotone speech quiet, greasiness of the face, there may be mental disorders.

Currently, the disease is rare, atypical.Ill at any age, but more often young - 20-30 years.

treatment of epidemic encephalitis

patients subject to compulsory hospitalization.The incubation period is not set accurately, so the person in contact with the patient are observed for 3 months.No specific treatment exists to date.Symptomatic prescribe antiviral agents, hormone therapy, dehydration, vitamins, anti-allergic drugs, atropine drugs, antispasmodics.

Prevention of epidemic encephalitis

In order to prevent ill should be isolated until the end of the acute phase, the room where he was, his subjects and clothes disinfected.Tick-borne encephalitis

Tick-borne encephalitis (spring-summer, taiga) - neyrovirusnyh acute infection that is transmitted by ticks, is characterized by acute onset, fever, and severe damage to the nervous system.
described this disease in 1934 - 1939 AG Panov, M.B.Krol.The causative agent - filterable virus was discovered in 1937 by LA Zilber.E.N.Levkovichem.disease occurs in the Far East, Siberia, the Urals, the Volga region, Belarus and several countries in Europe.

Tick-borne encephalitis refers to a group of natural - focus diseases in humans.The main store and the carrier of the virus are ticks.

ticks and ticks suck.

additional reservoir may be rodent - hare, hedgehog, squirrel, field mouse, birds - blackbird, goldfinch, finch, predators - the wolf.Man falls ill after a tick bite, it is also possible infection through consumption of raw milk of goats and cows.

symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis

incubation period - 10 - 31 days.The virus enters the blood, nervous system and develops encephalitis.High temperature - 40 degrees, severe headache, muscle pain, possible impairment of consciousness, fever, nausea and vomiting, sleep disorders.The acute period - 6 - 14 days.There is redness of the skin of the face and chest of the patient, the eye vessels.Perhaps the development of bronchitis, pneumonia, cardiac - vascular system and gastro - intestinal tract.There are five clinical forms of the disease:

• feverish,
• meningeal,
• meningoentsefalicheskaya
• poliomieliticheskaya
• poliradikulonevroticheskaya.

feverish most favorable form - 3-5 days of fever and neurological symptoms weakly expressed.

most common form - meningeal - severe headache with meningeal signs (neck stiffness symptom Kernig - the inability to straighten in the supine position, bent at the knee and hip joints of the legs).Last 7 - 14 days.Exodus - favorable.

most severe form - meningoentsefalicheskaya - gives high mortality - up to 20%.Pronounced symptoms of fever, meningeal symptoms, often seen delusions, hallucinations, agitation, seizures, hemiparesis, twitching.

When poliomieliticheskoy form the patients have fever develop paresis and paralysis of hands and neck muscles - hand falls, head hanging on his chest, the affected muscle atrophy.

Poliradikulonevroticheskaya form is characterized by lesions of the peripheral nerves - pain along the nerves, tingling, numbness.It occurs less frequently than all other forms.

survey after a tick bite

To diagnose blood sample is taken, the CSF.The basic method - serum - diagnostic is the increase in antibody titer 4 times.

Treatment of tick-borne encephalitis

Patients hospitalized in the infectious hospital.
used to treat serum immunoglobulin, antibiotics, dehydration, vitamin B, anticholinesterase drugs, biostimulators.The recovery period - use additionally neuroprotective, massage, physiotherapy exercises.

recovery period lasts for a long time.There may be residual effects in the form of atrophy of the muscles of the shoulder girdle, Kozhevnikov epilepsy - twitching of certain muscle groups and periodic detailed epipristupy.

Prevention of tick-borne encephalitis

Prevention of tick-borne encephalitis - human protection against tick bites.This is the right clothing (suits protivoentsefalitnye) in the forest, use klescheotpugivayuschih funds itself and vzaimoosmotry after leaving the taiga.Ticks crawl up the grass in search of food - the bite.

It looks like a tick on the grass in full size.

Therefore, you can not walk barefoot, lying in the grass in the forest.Discovered by a tick should be removed immediately.You can not crush him.It is better to go directly to the emergency room of the nearest hospital or health and hygiene inspection.If this is impossible - to remove the tick yourself - taking it (with tweezers, a special device, a thread) as close as possible to the proboscis and turning on an axis.

sharply not to pull - it can break and become infected.The wound will need to anoint iodine.

mite investigated in special laboratories for the presence of infection.Bring it must be living in a glass jar with the lid closed.Only 10 days after the bite, you can check the blood on the tick-borne encephalitis.Persons who have been bitten by a tick should be put protivokleschevoy immunoglobulin or appointed antivirals - anaferon, Jodantipyrin, tsikloferon, Arbidol, remantadin.Aktivnaya immunization of the population held in the Primorsky region, in the Urals, Altai, Latvia, Estonia ... - endemic areas.First of all vaccinated schoolchildren, pensioners - hiking lovers, mushroom pickers and gardeners, those whose work is related to the departure of the green zone.Between the vaccine must pass 2 months, and before going into the woods - 3 weeks to have time to develop immunity.It conducts educational outreach.

Dvuvolnovoy viral meningoencephalitis

Dvuvolnovoy viral meningoencephalitis - a kind of clinical variant of tick-borne encephalitis.Infection occurs through the use of goat's milk.Known name - goat encephalitis.But perhaps the infection and after the tick bite.It is characterized by a short period of feverish - 2 - 4 days, then the temperature decreases and increases in a few days again.The second wave is usually heavier than the first.

Season July - September.The incubation period for infection of milk 4 - 7 days, the bite - 20 days.Proceeds encephalitis softer, lighter, it does not turn into a chronic stage.Current favorable.

influenza encephalitis - meningoencephalitis

Against influenza develops a sharp headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, meningeal signs, double vision, drooping eyelids.In severe - hemorrhagic may develop seizures, hemiplegia, speech disturbances, ataxia.

Treatment of influenza encephalitis

treatment - antibiotics, dehydration, desensitization, and vitamins.Medications prescribed by the doctor.

Prevention of influenza encephalitis

Prevention of disease - is prevention of influenza - the flu shot, and timely access to a doctor, increase the body's defenses - immune stimulants, vitamins, nutrition, the use of natural volatile production - onions, garlic, lemons, limit contacts and eventsduring a flu epidemic, the use of gauze dressings, the prophylactic use of oxolinic ointment.

malarial encephalitis

malarial encephalitis (Japanese, Autumn, encephalitis B) - neyrovirusnyh acute infection causing meningoencephalitis.

His first epidemic with high mortality recorded in 1871 in the Japanese cities of Kyoto and Osaka.Over 100 years in Japan there were several major epidemics of encephalitis mosquito.Only in 1934 set the pathogen - filterable virus and its vector - the mosquito.

malarial mosquitoes .

natural foci spread - Japan, China, India, Korea, Vietnam, Africa, Java, the Philippines, the Far East and Primorye Territory.

incidence among people depend on mosquito activity.The reservoir of the virus in nature are wild birds.Turn white at any age.After this illness remains strong immunity, ie twice can not recover.

virus through the bite of a mosquito enters the bloodstream and spreads to all internal organs.Thus mosquito encephalitis - a generalized hemorrhagic kapillyarotoksikoz.
incubation period - 5 - 14 days, and possibly up to 21 days.

symptoms of malarial encephalitis

Onset acute - high temperature (up to 40), headache, body aches, chills, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, facial flushing, injection, eye vessels.After 3 - 4 days still deteriorating condition - growing meningeal syndrome.Pupils are sluggish to react to light, can be of different sizes.Maybe delirium, aggressiveness, which are replaced by drowsiness and coma.There may be seizures, increased muscle tone, cold sores can appear on the lips, impaired breathing, pulse quickens.

Severe complication of this period can be cerebral edema with herniation into the foramen magnum, the decline of cardiac activity and death.

In analyzing the blood increased levels of leukocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.with a favorable course of the disease symptoms regress, but the recovery process is long and difficult - 4-6 weeks.Possible neurological defects - paresis, impaired coordination, mental disorders, leading to disability.Mortality - 40 - 70%.

For diagnosis takes into account stay in endemic areas during the summer - autumn period, the disease clinical, serological blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

treatment of malarial encephalitis

used for the treatment of serum specific immunoglobulin, reanimation, detoxification, hormone therapy, neuroprotective, anticholinesterase drugs, vitamins.

Naturally this disease is treated only in a hospital intensive care unit with the presence of all-purpose makes the doctor.

Prevention malarial encephalitis

Prevention - mosquito measures in mosquito encephalitis endemic areas, personal protection against mosquitoes, vaccination, administration of immunoglobulin bitten.

Encephalitis in infections

Encephalitis can develop in various infections, their complications - herpes simplex, measles, chickenpox, rubella.

rubella encephalitis occurs at 3 - 4 hours at a rash rubella.
rubella Source - a sick child.
transmission path - air - drop.
Pathogen - a virus.
Ill young children.It may be congenital or acquired.Rubella is dangerous for pregnant women - the risk of birth defects Plada - Greg triad - the defeat of the cardio - vascular system, the eyes and the hearing aid.The flow of heavy, high mortality.Heat disorders of consciousness up to coma, generalized convulsions, seizures, hemiparesis.
no specific treatment.Symptomatic used corticosteroids, Lasix, nootropics - encephabol, nootropil, Cerebrolysin.

Measles encephalitis developed by the end of the stage of eruption with a new wave of rising temperatures and the development of coma, coarse brain symptoms - headache, vomiting and symptoms of focal lesions - paralysis, hyperkinesis (twitching), ataxia, loss of vision.
Pathogen measles - a virus.
transmission path - air - drop.
Ill mostly children aged 2 -5 years.The mortality rate is high.After this illness immunity resistant.When recovery is possible residual defects - paresis, seizures, decreased intelligence.No specific treatment.Apply antibiotics, anticonvulsants, nootropics, and vitamins.Prevention - the double vaccination of children aged 1 to 6.

Treated all infectious encephalitis in hospitals.After suffering encephalitis in the chronic stage of encephalitis should be observed at the neurologist, to take courses of drug treatment aimed at improving brain function, restoration of motor, atactic defect.In the case of Parkinson's - a permanent cure - pramipexole (mirapex), leftist, NAC, yumeks.

Doctor's consultation on encephalitis

Q: If I vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis and tick bit me what to do?
A: remove the tick, take any drugs is not necessary.

Question: shows whether health - spa treatment after suffering encephalitis?
Answer: not shown in the first year.In the future, depending on the neurological deficit is not the hottest time of the year.

Question: Is possible to distinguish externally Tick-borne Encephalitis from non-contagious?
Answer: you can not.Ticks infected and uninfected encephalitis virus are absolutely identical in appearance.

Question: when you travel to some regions need to be vaccinated against encephalitis?
A: vaccination against Japanese encephalitis when traveling to South Asia and the Far East in the late summer and early fall, from tick-borne encephalitis at a trip to Austria, the Czech Republic, the Republic of Karelia, the Urals, Krasnoyarsk and Khabarovsk Territory, the Novosibirsk region, the Volga region.