Lentigo - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

reasons
What diseases can be confused lentigines and when to seek medical attention
Treatment of lentigo
forecast
Prevention lentigo

Lentigo (lentil-shaped spot or freckle, melanoma, lentigo, lentiginosis, lentigo profuzornoe, nevus intsipiens, melatsitarny nevus, nonspecific pigmentation) - benign lentigo yellow and dark brown in color, with a diameter average of 1 - 2 cm, which is formed from melanocytes.Very rarely degenerates into a malignant form of melanoma.The risk of malignancy (malignancy) increases with frequent trauma.Multiple skin lesions lentigo elements are combined in a concept - lentigioz.

Lentigo Lentigo is characterized by a chronic course and a slow growth rate.The most common in the elderly (60-70 years).Women with lentigines occur more frequently than men.However, mortality from lentigo when malignancy is higher in males, as in this case, the tumor is becoming more aggressive form.

Lentigo may occur on the face, sometimes on the neck, on the surface of the arms and leg

s.The first sign of malignancy is the formation of lentigo small unobtrusive infiltration, which inflames and palpation revealed a nodule under the skin.

Malignant melanoma lentigo can give early metastasis limfagenno hematogenically and so is the cause of the high mortality from skin cancer (up to 75% of the total number of cases).Every year around the world lentigiozom ill 92,000 people.Over the past 30 years, marked by an increased incidence among whites.

There are several types of lentigo:

1. Senile (hepatic, age spots) - appears out of the senile (senile), metabolic disorders, as a result, there is excessive deposition of melanocytes in the skin.
2. Children and Youth - occurs in the first decade of life and has no connection with the solar radiation.
3. Solar - occurs under the influence of solar radiation.
4. Inheritance (illness Touraine, periorifitsialnaya form) - passed by the dominant principle of inheritance and new elements lentigines occur throughout life.

reasons lentigo

There are many factors that play a role in the occurrence of lentigo:
• Excessive exposure and sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation.
• sunburn and prolonged exposure to the sun (especially in mountain regions).
• Sunburns in childhood.
• Mutations in the genes.
• Light skin (I or II), blond hair, bright eye color.The degree of skin pigmentation depends on the type of melanin.
• Exposure to artificial sources of radiation.
• Age and condition of the immune system.
• Genetic factors (fonotip, heredity).
• Immunosuppression (recipients of organ donors and AIDS patients).
• Carriage of human papillomavirus.
• Role of hormones (puberty, pregnancy and childbirth, as well as taking hormonal contraceptives)

What diseases can be confused lentigo

Any increase in skin pigmentation initially is not dangerous.But from time to time, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist.Early stage of development lentigo may be mistaken for:
- Freckles - slightly brownish spots having a diameter of 3 mm on the skin of the face, shoulders and neck.
- Birthmark - congenital skin mark, which is usually darker than the rest of the skin.Depending on color distinguish 3 types of stains: wine, salmon and red-dot (hemangioma)
- Moles (nevi) - benign congenital tumor of the skin.
- chloasma - hyperpigmentation of the skin area, due to the increased content of her melanocytes.

When to see a doctor

major role in preventing maligniztsii (malignancy) lentigo plays early diagnosis, allowing to detect the melanoma is still at the stage where a complete cure is possible.It is important to identify early symptoms in time to consult a dermatologist or oncologist and to prevent degeneration of the melanocytes.

first signs of malignant lentigo:

1. The asymmetry of shape.
2. Uneven border defeat.
3. Non-uniform color spots.
4. The diameter of 6 mm.
5. Convexity and surface roughness.
6. Itching.
7. Inflammation.

Late symptoms or metastases:

inflammatory process in the skin or in the immediate vicinity of the tumor (intradermally or subcutaneously in the course of the lymphatic system).

diagnosis is confirmed by a full examination of deep skin structures using dermaskopii or biopsy.The doctor evaluates the thickness and depth of the tumor.Histopathological examination is complemented by studies using monoclonal antibodies that would more accurately identify the type of cancer cells.To identify possible metastases, done a biopsy of the lymph nodes.

Treatment of lentigo

benign lentigo form does not differ from the treatment of freckles or chloasma.After consultation with the oncologist or dermatologist can use techniques such as retinoic peels, laser treatment (grinding) skin photoprotection UF filters, etc.

Any suspicious changes in the skin, indicating melanoma, should be removed completely.

• Surgery - the only effective procedure for the treatment of melanoma Lentigo.Fabric excised slightly wider affected area.Prophylactic removal is carried out without regional lymph nodes.In the case of metastases in regional lymph nodes performed their radical resection.
• Perfusion - is a method of treatment of inoperable malignant lentigo on the limbs.During the procedure, blood flow is stopped by a harness and administered cytostatics (melphalan, dacarbazine - DTIC), which inhibit the growth of tumors.Perfusion gives good results in cases of multiple recurrences or metastases.
• Radiation therapy - in some cases it may be effective.It is used as an operational after treatment, and in the case of inoperable tumors.Radiation therapy should be applied in large doses (500-600 R times a week), unlike other tumor radiotherapy when applied and frequent smaller doses.
• Chemotherapy - drug therapy (bleomycin, vincristine, lomustine).It suppresses the various stages in the development of cancer cells.
• metostazov Treatment - by removal of isolated metastases to lymph nodes or distant organs (brain, lungs, liver).
• glycosylated INF - treatment with human interferon, has no side effects.Used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of metastatic disease.
• Gene therapy - a vaccination against tumors.Injecting entered class I MHC gene.

forecast

important indicator in determining the prognosis of malignant lentigo, a mitotic index.It has the following parameters: the depth of invasion (penetrating) thickness change, which allows to evaluate the risk of malignancy, metastasis and survival.

forecast lentigo malignant form unfavorable.Other forms of benign lentigo can be treated by cosmetic consultation with a dermatologist or oncologist.

Prevention lentigo

• Avoid exposure to sunlight, especially in childhood, coupled with exposure to the sun and tanning.
• It is desirable that on sunny days to wear sunglasses, a wide-brimmed hat and avoid the appearance of the sun s11.00 to 15.00.
• It is recommended to the regular use of sunscreen creams.Filters - substances which absorb or reflect radiation UF.Thus, they reduce the harmful effects of the sun.

Remember, the use of filters does not completely prevent damage to the skin!Often, when using a cream people feel a false sense of security and a longer stay in the sun.

doctor cosmetologist Kondratenko NA