Varicose veins - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
varicose veins or varicose veins - an extension of the superficial veins associated with a failure of venous valves and blood disorder.The disease is the most common vascular pathology among people of working age.
Causes of varicose veins
Traditionally there are risk factors and disease progression.Heredity and its contribution is not clearly proven in the occurrence of varicose veins.It has been observed that in some families in several generations constantly found varices, but is now considered that the predominant role in the emergence of the disease play a nutritional factors, lifestyle factors, as well as conditions associated with changes in hormonal cycle.
Obesity - one of the main risk factors for developing the disease.The frequency of development of varicose veins increases with the degree of severity of obesity.Obesity is often accompanied by a fixed or sedentary lifestyle and poor diet.The diet of the population of industrialized countries is currently dominated by products of high degre
should not forget about the wrong organization of the labor process.Often, most of the time we spend working in a sitting or standing, and it is very bad for the valve apparatus of the veins.Also unfavorable is the hard work associated with the sharp (regular series) load on the lower limbs, such as when lifting weights.In our dynamic time often become long flights or transfers, which are accompanied by the occurrence of stagnation of blood in the veins of the legs and are also a risk factor for venous disease.
keeping with fashion trends, many do not think that close underwear leads to compression of the veins at the level of the inguinal folds, and corsets increase intra-abdominal pressure, so it is not recommended to wear them consistently.Also, do not forget about the dangers of wearing high heel shoes with arch supports uncomfortable.
Repeated pregnancies are also a proven risk factor for venous disease.Increased uterus promotes intra-abdominal pressure, such as a hormone, progesterone, have an adverse effect on the vein wall, shattering it contains collagen and elastic fibers.Some diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, proceed with a change in hormonal status.At the same time the risk of varicose veins increases dramatically.
Speaking about the reasons that lead to the expansion of veins, we must examine the structure of the lower limbs.Allocate system of superficial veins (large and small saphenous veins), deep venous system (deep veins of the lower leg and thigh) and the perforating and perforating veins that connect the superficial and deep veins.Under normal conditions, blood flow in the legs occurs deep in the system (90%) and the superficial veins (10%).In order to move blood to the heart, and not in the opposite direction, in the walls of the veins have valves which, in closing, do not allow blood to move downward under the force of gravity.Additionally, tremendous importance of muscle contraction, which also contributes to the smooth flow of blood.The worst conditions for the promotion of blood provided standing in the complete absence or under-active muscle contraction.At the same time the blood stagnates, increased pressure in the veins and they are expanding.Formed failure of the valve device, wherein the valve flaps do not close completely, and formed the abnormal movement of blood from the heart.
valvular insufficiency with varicose veins.
particularly rapidly affected valves deep venous system, as they have the maximum load.Due to abnormal blood flow develops additional overload of deep vein blood volume.To reduce the excess pressure through the system of communicating veins the blood is discharged into the superficial veins, which, in turn, are not intended to promote a large volume of blood.The result is a hyperextension of the wall with the formation of characteristic varices.But the increased volume of blood continues to flow in the deep veins, thus forming failure valves communicating veins with the presence of a smooth horizontal flow of blood in the direction of both deep and superficial blood vessels.In the final, formed chronic venous insufficiency with edema, pain and trophic ulcers.
Symptoms of varicose veins
As you might guess from the title, the main visible sign of varicose veins is considered sacciform or cylindrical extension of the superficial veins.
Varicose veins in the legs.
They become crimped, protrude above the surface of the skin in the legs and feet.Maximum varices are expressed after long or heavy physical activity.Very often, veins appear at a young age, women - during and after pregnancy.
In the early stages the symptoms of varicose veins are few and nonspecific.All of the features of this stage are combined into «heavy legs syndrome» .At the same time concerned about the fatigue, feeling of heaviness, burning, bursting, the severity of which is maximal after exercise.Also, there may be transient swelling, aching pain along the vein.This is characteristic of a small swelling of the ankles and the rear of the foot that occurs in the evening, especially after prolonged static load.A characteristic feature of edema is that they leave in the morning without a trace.For this stage, not necessarily the presence of visible varicose veins.As a rule, the majority of patients with varicose veins observed in the debut of the disease the presence of certain signs.So timely appeal to a specialist even at the initial stage of the disease will prevent further development of disease.
Varicose disease develops slowly, sometimes for decades.In case of inadequate treatment on the progression of the disease is formed chronic venous insufficiency.
Particular attention should be paid to the issue of "spider veins", as an important symptom of venous insufficiency."Vascular asterisks" - a spider advanced more than 0.1 mm of the capillaries that are visible through the skin.
As a rule, women regard these "stars" as a cosmetic defect, men just do not notice it.Indeed, in some cases, are manifestations dishormonal violations, abuse of sauna, solarium, and the avoidance of high temperatures and the removal of hormonal imbalance (eg, use of oral contraceptives) will completely cure the disease.But, in most cases, the appearance of "spider veins" is the first and perhaps the only sign of the overflow of the superficial veins and varicose veins.Therefore, even if a small section of the extended capillary network necessary to consult a specialist.
Complications of varicose veins
Varicose veins - not only a cosmetic problem, but also a dangerous disease, primarily because of its complications.Improper or untimely treatment of developing such terrible conditions such as thrombosis, and thrombosis as well as bleeding from dilated veins.Thrombosis (complete or partial closure of the lumen of the vein thrombus) or thrombophlebitis (an inflammatory disease of venous thrombosis stenkipri) occurs suddenly, it is not associated with physical activity.Edema is spreading rapidly in the lower limb, which is accompanied by unbearable pain arching.There may be redness or blueness, local tenderness of the skin.In the case of detachment of thrombus with the blood flow it gets into the lungs vessels, and in the case of total or partial closure of the vessel is able to cause serious disease - pulmonary embolism.This complication is often lethal.If you suspect that the data complications of varicose veins should immediately take a horizontal position, raise the leg up on the phone to contact emergency medical help.It is impossible to compress the leg muscles, use an ointment to step on the foot.
considered dangerous and the area of the injury the blood vessels, as this can cause excessive bleeding.In this case, an urgent need to apply the leg harness (medical or impromptu) above the site of bleeding, hard enough to make the bleeding stop.It is also an urgent need to call the team ambulance.
In identifying at least one of these symptoms requires inspection phlebologist - a specialist in diseases of the veins and, if necessary, consultation with other specialists, such as a vascular surgeon, internist, gynecologist.
Diagnosis of varicose veins
Turning to the doctor, you probably will be asked the following survey:
- Complete blood count.The number of red blood cells and hemoglobin level indicates the degree of blood clots, the disease can be judged on the blood clotting system in the level of platelets (predisposition to thrombosis), increased number of white blood cells characterized by inflammation (thrombophlebitis confirmed).
- "gold" standard for the diagnosis of varicose veins is considered ultrasonography of the lower extremities, in which affected areas of veins are determined.This principle is based anatomical classification of varicose veins with an indication of the modified vessel.For example, the defeat of the great saphenous vein above or below the knee, the small saphenous vein.Ultrasound of the lower limbs is recommended for the identification of the above symptoms of varicose veins, even the appearance of "spider veins".
- Rheovasography - method of determining the blood supply failure (power supply) of tissues by calculating rheographic index.On the basis of this indicator reveals the disease stage: compensation subindemnification or decompensation.
- When questionable data noninvasive resort to surgical methods of research, such as venography (intravenous contrast agent to assess the state of the venous system).
treatment of varicose veins - a complex process, the duration of which depends on the stage of the disease.Therapeutic measures are divided into surgical and conservative (non-surgical).
Non-surgical treatment of varicose veins gives good results only at the onset of the disease, when the skin manifestations are not pronounced, and only moderately reduced ability to work.Also, conservative therapy is indicated when there are contraindications for surgery.Furthermore, these methods fail to be used postoperatively to prevent disease recurrence.
Conservative treatment includes a reduction in the severity of risk factors, adequate exercise, elastic compression, drugs and physical therapy.The adoption of these measures together ensure a good result.Together with a specialist is necessary to identify risk factors for varicose veins, such as obesity, oral contraceptives, irregular physical activity, and try to influence them.
People who have risk factors for varicose disease, including family history, even in the absence of symptoms must be at least twice a year to consult with the mandatory implementation phlebologist ultrasonography of the lower extremities.
In the absence of complications (thrombosis or thrombophlebitis), the veins to be trained on a regular basis of the lower extremities.Recommended: the legs in an elevated position can be kept for longer, use comfortable shoes.Preferably, walking, swimming, cycling, jogging.Physical activity (except for swimming) should be carried out in conditions of elastic compression.Contraindicated exercises traumatic lower limb sports, as well as in the case of the prevailing load on the lower limbs: football, basketball, volleyball, tennis, skiing, various types of martial arts, exercise, associated with heavy lifting.House after consultation with a specialist is possible to conduct a few simple exercises .
Before class you must soak a few minutes, holding the leg in an elevated position to prepare the body for exercise.The rate and speed of individual exercises, in accordance with the physical features.During the main physical education - regularity.
in the supine position.
1 "Bicycle".The back and loin are firmly pressed to the floor pedal.
2. «vertical shears."Hand your sides, cross our legs like scissors.
3.Rabotaem with stops.In a prone position bend and unbend, make circular movements in the ankle joints.
In a standing position, as well as sitting at your desk, you can perform the following exercises.Each exercise is repeated 20 times
1. Lifting (socks - together).Socks are parallel, are pressed together.Rise on your toes, freezes in this position for a few seconds, go down to the floor.
2. Rise (socks - apart).Heels together, toes apart.Rise on your toes, then go down to the floor.
3. Lifting (heel - apart).Socks together, heels apart.Movements are performed as in the previous exercises.
few times a day is recommended to use a contrast shower.Massaging the feet alternately cold and warm running water for about 5 minutes each.
elastic compression - treatment of varicose veins by elastic bandages or medical use of jersey.This creates dosed squeezing of muscles.It contributes to better blood flow through the veins and prevents stagnation.Due to the artificial maintenance of "tone" vein cease to expand, create a thrombosis prophylaxis.
At all stages of the development of varicose veins is recommended to use drugs-flebotonikov.Their action is aimed to strengthen venous walls.Today used drugs such as Detraleks, Cyclo 3 Fort Ginkor-fort Troxevasin, Anavenol, Aescusan, Asklezan, Antistax, Phlebodia 600. The course of treatment lasting 6 months or more.Also shown are drugs that reduce blood viscosity - antiplatelet agents (aspirin, chimes), anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac).
No folk remedies, refers to herbs, can not be compared to the effectiveness of these drugs, so you should not self-medicate. Drug therapy should be used only on prescription.Local treatments, such as various ointments, gels are not recommended in the absence of thrombosis, thrombophlebitis.
Physiotherapy has no independent value.It is used only on prescription, depending on the underlying problem.The use of physical methods at home may itself lead to the development of complications (inflammation of accession, separation of a blood clot).In the case of proper use best effect have diadynamic currents, magnetic field, electrophoresis, laser.
varicose veins - surgical disease, full recovery from which is possible only after surgical treatment .Depending on the location of the lesion and the severity of disease following surgical treatment methods are used.
1. Phlebectomy - surgical removal of varicose veins.The goal of surgery is to remove the abnormal blood reset by removing the main trunks of large or small saphenous vein and ligation of communicating veins.This operation is contraindicated in:
severe concomitant diseases, in which the surgical intervention can greatly aggravate the condition;
late stage of varicose veins;
presence in the body of any purulent process;
application of endoscopic therapies makes the operation safer, cosmetically advantageous.