Hemorrhoids - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Hemorrhoids - vascular disease of the rectum, in which there is an increase, up to hair loss, hemorrhoids.Normally there are certainly hemorrhoids in the anal canal of each person is considered abnormal only their increase, loss, pain, bleeding from them.Generally, hemorrhoids refers to diseases of the circulatory system (Diseases of veins, lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes).
Hemorrhoids - a vascular formation, located in the lower part of the rectum (anal canal), in the form of three pads.Under the influence of adverse factors, such as excessive exercise, pregnancy, sitting lifestyle, blood stasis occurs in the nodes, and they are increasing.With increasing internal nodes indicate the internal hemorrhoids, external - for external hemorrhoids.Most often, there is an increase, and external and internal nodes, this is called a combined hemorrhoids.The prevalence of the disease is very high and amounts to 140-160 per 1,000 adult population.Every year people suffering from hemorrhoids are m
arteries supplying blood to the anal canal, down from the rectum and form a rich network of vessels (which explains why bleeding hemorrhoids bright red, scarlet - arterial blood, not dark red - venous, and whybleeding can be very severe).These arteries supply blood to the hemorrhoids.There are 2
venous flow, diverting blood from the lower rectum and anus.The first leads to the rectum, and the second passes under the skin around the anus.
If hemorrhoids starts at the top (rectal side) of the anal canal (the so-called above the dentate line), we are talking about the internal hemorrhoids.If the lower part of the anal canal - external.Hemorrhoids occurs when the outflow of blood from hemorrhoids for some reason difficult.Vessels hemorrhoids swell and host tissues increase in size.Convex tissue mass protrude into the anal canal, but unlike the hemorrhoid external, internal and not visible from the outside it is difficult to feel an early stage.
What Are Hemorrhoids - photo
Causes of hemorrhoids
What causes hemorrhoids?It is not known why hemorrhoids suddenly start to increase.There are several theories, but none of them has no scientific proof.It is noted that the causes of hemorrhoids can be:
- Inadequate intake of dietary fiber in the food,
- pelvic tumor,
- constipation (increased pressure in the rectum, and there is blood flow to the hemorrhoidal nodes, which helps them increase and subsequent loss);
- hereditary factors (often hemorrhoid becomes a family disease);
- pregnancy, childbirth (women there increase pressure in the abdomen that can cause hemorrhoids);
- Prolonged sitting on the toilet, excessive straining (prolonged stay in a sitting position when relaxed muscles of the perineum leads to a weakening of support for natural hemorrhoids);
- Sedentary lifestyle (leads to stagnation of blood in the pelvis, resulting in an increase of hemorrhoids);
- Alcohol Abuse (resulting in a significant acceleration of the blood flow in the anal area, which can cause hemorrhoidal bleeding);
- Excessive exercise and lifting weights (while there is an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, which leads to loss of hemorrhoids);
- hot and spicy food (causing irritation in the anal canal).
Risk Factors hemorrhoids
presence of even one of the above reasons can cause haemorrhoids.You are at risk if you have been sedentary, are suffering from constipation or are pregnant.
Symptoms of hemorrhoids
in the anal canal are 2 types of nerves - visceral (above the dentate line) and somatic (below the dentate line).Somatic nerves, as well as the nerves of the skin, are capable of transmitting pain.Visceral nerves do not feel pain, just pressure.Thus, internal hemorrhoids painless, at its early stages is impossible to see or feel, as opposed to the outside.External hemorrhoids can be seen around the outside of the anus and feel.
Most of the people find in their hemorrhoids, feeling a lump in the anus, or seeing blood on the toilet paper or in the toilet bowl, or noticing the loss of internal hemorrhoids after a bowel movement.Symptoms such as itching or anal discomfort and can not be seen.
Hemorrhoids occurs in two ways - both acute and chronic, but essentially it is the phase of the same process.When chronic is released red blood during defecation, a prolapsed hemorrhoid, dull incessant pain in the anus, itching.While at acute inflammation occurs in the nodes that, in addition to other symptoms causes severe pain in the anus.
most common complaint with internal hemorrhoids - painless bleeding.You will see blotches of bright red blood in the stool, on toilet paper or drops of blood in the toilet bowl.Bleeding usually lasts for long.
Rectal bleeding is a symptom and a terrible disease, so the appearance of the first symptoms are advised to consult with a proctologist.
Chronic hemorrhoids are divided into 4 stages:
- 1st stage is characterized by the release of red blood during defecation, without loss of hemorrhoids.
- 2nd is characterized by loss of hemorrhoids, which subsequently reduce a self.
- third stage is characterized by loss of hemorrhoids, with the need to manually reposition them in the anal canal.
- 4th stage is characterized by loss of hemorrhoids, without the possibility of reverse reduction.Stage 4 hemorrhoids also include hemorrhoids to form blood clots.
for Acute Hemorrhoids are divided into 3 stages:
- 1st stage is characterized by thrombosis of hemorrhoids without inflammation.
- 2nd stage is characterized by inflammation of the merger.
- third stage is characterized by inflammation of the tissues surrounding the hemorrhoidal node.
Hemorrhoids can lead to a condition called prolapsed hemorrhoid.
loss occurs when the internal hemorrhoids swell and then protrudes through the anus.At the same time you can feel and find a lump outside the anus.In many cases it is possible carefully straighten her back through the anus and solve the problem, but if the hemorrhoids can not be vpravlen, hemorrhoids may further swell and become trapped outside the anus - jamming occurs.If this happens, you urgently need to see a doctor!
At loss of hemorrhoids often itching in the anus (anal itching).If such injury of hemorrhoids (such as constipation) may cause bleeding and pain.
consequence of external hemorrhoids can be a painful condition called thrombosed hemorrhoids.
When a blood clot settles in the hemorrhoidal site, hemorrhoids will become even more swollen.This leads to a further increase it.
There are a lot of pain and a burning sensation when defecating.
It is also one of the factors which may require inspection and medical treatment.
presence of constant humidity in the anus together can lead to such a symptom, such as itching in the anal area, although this is not a typical symptom of hemorrhoids.
Most people with hemorrhoids have a good prognosis.Possible outbreaks of disease - bleeding or mild discomfort from time to time, but they did not last long and can be taken home treatments without reference to the doctor.
Some people need surgery.This operation is quite simple, and after surgery Most of the state of improvement is seen.
Diagnosis of hemorrhoids.Tests and procedures
diagnosis of hemorrhoids is not difficult.The diagnosis is usually detected during a survey of the patient and the first outpatient examination.Seen from the estimated degree of prolapse of the anal canal, the possibility of their return reposition, the skin of the anal region, presence and degree of bleeding.
Sometimes you may need anaskopiya.
When anaskopii small glowing ball (anaskop) is placed into the anus, allowing you to fully see the anus and lower rectum.The procedure causes a little discomfort, but it is easily done in a doctor's office and does not require pain medication.
To exclude oncology spend sigmoidoscopy, research rectum and sigmoid colon, where the mucosa inspected these areas.
Hemorrhoids differentiate (specify the diagnosis with similar symptoms of disease):
- with anal fissures, which could also give the bleeding and pain in the anus.
- mucosal prolapse or all of the rectum, and the formation of a cylindrical shape.
- with cancer of the rectum, which is also present at the bleeding.There is a rare form of cancer that look like hemorrhoids.
- with skin diseases, in particular, with warts.
- other causes of bleeding may be colitis (colon inflammation), polyps.
General measures of treatment of hemorrhoids
recommended to increase fiber in the diet, treatment of constipation.The fibers are in fresh and dried fruits, vegetables, grains and cereals.The day is recommended 20-30 grams of fiber.
Laxatives are often not recommended to drink, because diarrhea (diarrhea) exacerbates the symptoms of hemorrhoids.
Home remedies for the treatment of hemorrhoids
Treatment varies depending on the severity of the problem.Most of the time, and conservative treatment is carried out at home.
Seats hot bath for hemorrhoids
recommended sitz baths 3 times a day and after each bowel movement at least 15 minutes.
How do sitz baths: sit, immersed in shallow warm water in the bath.
This is the best way to reduce swelling and pain.
Be sure to thoroughly dry the skin around the anus after each bath to prevent blisters and cracks.
Nutrition, diet hemorrhoids
Drink plenty of fluids and eat more green vegetables to relieve constipation.
suffering from constipation or hard stool can can help increase the amount of bran and fiber in the diet.
Laxatives can also alleviate the condition.
You must be careful in choosing a laxative.
If the chair after laxative become loose or watery, it can cause an infection in the anus, a laxative should not be used.
Less sit hemorrhoids
Some doctors recommend that people with hemorrhoids not sit for a long period of time.
Some people feel more comfortable sitting on a cushion of air.
Medication from hemorrhoids without a prescription
cures for hemorrhoids that are sold without a doctor's prescription only reduce the symptoms, facilitate discomfort, relieve itching.Preparations available in the form of ointments, creams, gels, suppositories, and foams.Ointment, cream, or gel is applied with a thin layer around the anus, when applied to the anal canal little medication tucked into his finger.Suppositories have benefits in the treatment, but are more convenient to use when the internal hemorrhoids.
self-medication does not help, and sometimes may even lead to complications of hemorrhoids and the difficulty of further treatment, so consult with your doctor before using any medications.
Folk remedies for hemorrhoids
the treatment of hemorrhoids are widely used folk remedies, but they should be used only on the advice of the attending physician.
Conservative treatment of hemorrhoids
Treatment of acute hemorrhoids
In acute hemorrhoids shown primarily conservative treatment.Apply general and local anesthetics, anti-inflammatory drugs, ointment application, cleansing enemas (only in the early stages of hemorrhoids), as flebotonicheskie drugs are used.
- When pain syndrome used narcotic analgesics (diclofenac, Movalis, Nise, Voltaren, Ketonal) and local combination therapies (Ultraproct, Proktoglivenol, Gepatrombin F et al.).
- When distributing an inflammation of the surrounding tissue and subcutaneous tissue unit is used with applications ointments have strong anti-inflammatory effect (Levomekol, Levasin, Vishnevsky ointment).
- the treatment of acute and chronic hemorrhoids now necessarily used flebotonicheskie (raising the tone of the venous vessels) medications.The most effective is Detraleks.When bleeding
- use candles containing epinephrine, as well as local hemostatic materials (beriplast, adrokson, spongostan).
Conservative treatment of hemorrhoids gives a temporary effect, however, after decrease in acute inflammation, it is recommended the implementation of minimally invasive treatment or surgery, depending on the stage
disease If you have prolonged bleeding, prolapsed hemorrhoid, which can not be vpravleny onplace, uncontrollable pain or intense rectal itching, surgery is needed.
Treatment of chronic hemorrhoids
Patients 1st and 2nd stage of hemorrhoids is possible to perform minimally invasive treatments: sclerotherapy, ligation latex rings, photocoagulation, cryotherapy .
Contraindications to the use of these methods:
- thrombosis hemorrhoids.
- anal fissure.
- acute and chronic abscess, as well as other inflammatory diseases of the anus and perineum.
- Sclerotherapy: This method involves the introduction of a sclerosing agent (1.5-2 ml) hemorrhoid causing bonding and flattening of the vessels.Introduction recommended no more than 2 haemorrhoid as possible the development of pain.Maybe re-holding of sclerotherapy in 12-14 days after the first session.
- The ligation latex rings: the method used to treat internal hemorrhoids, on the basis of which throws latex ring, that is a violation of their food.Nodes with rings rejected on 7-10 day.Sometimes you need to hold several sessions with an interval of 14-16 days.
- photocoagulation: a hemorrhoid is supplied to the optical fiber contact with him.The heat affects the hemorrhoid, causing zapustevanie and gluing vessels.The tip is applied to the unit base 2-6 times per procedure.
- Cryotherapy: hemorrhoid is exposed to freezing for 2-3 minutes, after thawing occurs and the withering away of the assembly on-site impact is formed wound.This effect is most often performed under local anesthesia.
Minimally invasive procedures usually require general anesthesia or hospitalization, but in the case of cryotherapy or laser therapy you will need general anesthesia or epidural (spinal) anesthesia.
significant drawback of minimally invasive treatments for hemorrhoids is their non-radical.They do not eliminate the main causes of hemorrhoids - the excess blood flow to the hemorrhoidal nodes.
Treatment of thrombosed hemorrhoids
o If you have a thrombosed hemorrhoid, you will feel the pain.
o If the pain is not strong and the hemorrhoid is not much increased, the doctor may recommend that you sit hot baths and laxatives.
o If the pain is severe or hemorrhoid is too increased, it is necessary to remove a blood clot.
This procedure can be done in a doctor's office or the emergency room, but in any case not at home.
o Removal of a blood clot is performed under local anesthesia.
o When will affect the anesthesia and the patient does not feel anything, the doctor will make a small incision hemorrhoids to remove a blood clot.