Cardiomyopathy - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Diseases Of The Heart And Blood Vessels

Cardiomyopathy - a group of inflammatory diseases of the heart muscle tissue with a different cause.Obsolete name for this group of diseases - myocardial.This disease affects people of all age groups and has no preference in gender.For a long time the doctors could not determine the true cause of cardiomyopathy, and in 2006 the American Heart Association has decided to understand the reason for a group of reasons which, under certain conditions and circumstances, cause myocardial damage.

stand out: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiomyopathy restrikivnaya.These kinds of cardiomyopathy have their own characteristics impact on the heart muscle, but the principles of equal treatment and are aimed mainly at eliminating the causes of cardiomyopathy and treatment of chronic heart failure.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) - a disease characterized by hypertrophy (thickening) of the wall of the left and / or right ventricle of the heart sometimes.

Figure healthy heart and the hear

t of a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) - a disease of the myocardium, characterized by the development of dilatation of the heart cavities (to increase the volume of the heart chambers), with the occurrence of systolic dysfunction, but without increasing the wall thickness.

Restrictive cardiomyopathy is rare and is characterized by stiffness of the heart walls, poor ability to move in the relaxation phase.As a result, complicated blood and oxygen delivery to the left ventricle of the heart, blood circulation throughout the body.In some cases, there is restrictive cardiomyopathy in children, caused by hereditary factors.

Causes of cardiomyopathy

defeat of myocardium in cardiomyopathies can be primary or secondary process as a result of systemic illness and is accompanied by the development of heart failure, and in rare cases, sudden death.

There are three groups of the main reasons for the development of primary cardiomyopathy: congenital, mixed, and acquired.The secondary cardiomyopathy are due to any disease.As mentioned above, the causes of this disease are many, but with the development of cardiomyopathy symptoms are similar, regardless of the reasons that caused this condition.

Congenital cardiac disease develops due to violation Bookmark myocardial tissues during embryogenesis.The reasons so many, ranging from bad habits expectant mother and ending stress and malnutrition.Also known cardiomyopathy pregnant and inflammatory cardiomyopathy that can be called substantially myocarditis.

The secondary forms include the following types.

Cardiomyopathy storage or infiltrative .It is characterized by the accumulation between the cells or in the cells of pathological inclusions.

Toxic cardiomyopathy .The severity of the heart muscle in the interaction with medications, especially anti-tumor, is different from asymptomatic ECG changes before lightning heart failure and death.Prolonged use of alcohol in large quantities, can lead to inflammation of the heart muscle (alcoholic cardiomyopathy), this reason is in first place in our country, as the most frequently detected.

Endocrine cardiomyopathy (metabolic cardiomyopathy, dysmetabolic cardiomyopathy) is caused by metabolic disorders in the heart muscle, often leads to the degeneration of the walls and violations of the contractility of the heart muscle.The reasons - endocrine disorders, menopause, obesity, nesballansirovannoe food, stomach and bowel disease.If cardiomyopathy develops as a result of thyroid disease and diabetes, there is a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Alimentary cardiomyopathy formed as a result of malnutrition, particularly during prolonged restricted diet of meat products or starvation affects the heart of the lack of intake of vitamin B1, selenium, carnitine.

cardiomyopathy Symptoms that may occur in a patient.

Symptoms can appear at any age, they are usually not very noticeable to the patient and do not cause him anxiety to a certain point.Patients with cardiomyopathy reach normal life expectancy and live to a ripe old age.However, the disease can be complicated by the development of severe complications.

Symptoms quite common and confusing them with other diseases easily enough.These include shortness of breath, which is in the initial stage occurs only in severe exertion;chest pain, dizziness, weakness.These symptoms occur due to dysfunction of heart contractile ability.

question arises when the same address for the help to the doctor?Many of these symptoms may be a physiological characteristic of each one of us, or do not have a serious nature as a manifestation of chronic pathology.It is worth considering if chest pain is a long 'aching' character, and combined with severe shortness of breath.If there is swelling of the feet, feeling short of breath during physical activity, and sleep disorder.Unexplained fainting that can occur due to lack of blood supply to the brain.Do not wait for the development of further complications, contact your doctor.

Diagnostic event.

  • necessary that your doctor has asked you in detail about whether you have heart disease in the family, if there is, who died suddenly relatives, especially at a young age.
  • necessary to conduct a thorough examination with auscultation of heart sounds, because the frequency and amount of noise can confidently say about one or another of heart disease.
  • In order to prevent another heart disease, it is necessary to conduct a biochemical blood tests (myocardial necrosis markers, electrolyte composition of the blood, serum glucose and lipid profile).
  • necessary to pay special attention to the functional indices reflecting the state of the kidneys and liver.Clinical blood and urine.
  • Chest X-ray can detect the majority of patients with signs of increased left heart, indicating an overload.However, in some cases, may be omitted for radiographing any pathology.
  • necessary to perform electrocardiography in all patients with suspected cardiomyopathy.You may be asked to write Holter electrocardiogram, which is performed for the evaluation of cardiac arrhythmias and the influence of the nervous system.
  • Ultrasonography is the "gold" standard in the diagnosis of cardiomyopathy.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated for all patients before surgery.The method has a better than echocardiography, resolution, allows to evaluate the features of myocardial structure and see the pathological changes.

understand yourself, what disease of a wide variety of similar it is you, is not possible.The correct diagnosis can only spend cardiologist.It is necessary to differentiate the diseases accompanied by an increase in myocardial left heart: aortic stenosis, myocardial hypertrophy to arterial hypertension, amyloidosis, sporting heart, a genetic disease.To eliminate genetic diseases and syndromes should consult a specialist in genetic disorders.heart surgeon consultation is required if: there is a marked increase in the thickness of the wall of the left side of the heart, increased pressure in the left ventricle output departments, treatment failure medications.You must also receive counseling from arrhythmology.

treatment of cardiomyopathy.

cardiomyopathy treatment rather complicated and long.This is due in polietilogichnostyu this pathology.While as cardiomyopathy treatment depends on the cause, the goal of treatment is to maximize cardiac output and preventing further dysfunction of the heart muscle.The treatment is very important to follow all the activities that the doctor prescribes you.

very important to pay attention to the points which the patient must self-liquidate.In severe body weight it is very important to stick to your diet and lifestyle for the gradual and effective weight loss.Bad habits, such as alcohol and smoking are least likely to affect the development of heart disease than the direct risk factors.Intense physical activity and alcohol should be completely excluded from the lifestyle in order to reduce the load on the heart.In some cases, in the early stages of the disease, these measures can facilitate treatment and prevent its development.

Medication prescribed to sick people, who were pronounced clinical manifestations of cardiomyopathy.Preparations from the group of β-adrenoblakatorov whose representatives are Atenolol and bisoprolol.

the presence of arrhythmias should be the appointment of anticoagulants because of the increased risk of thromboembolic complications.

When planning surgery and for the prevention of infective endocarditis requires antibiotics.

drug verapamil can be administered in the absence of the effect of the core group of therapeutic agents.The drug has a beneficial effect on the symptoms of cardiomyopathy by reducing the severity of dysfunction of the heart muscle.

Surgery is performed under strict indications and ineffective medication.If cardiomyopathy associated with cardiac arrhythmias, in this case it is necessary to implant a pacemaker, which will maintain the heart rate at the right frequency.If there is a risk of sudden death (there were episodes of violence) required implantation of a defibrillator.This unit can recognize ventricular fibrillation, an abnormal rhythm that makes the heart work in the correct mode and send an impulse for the heart as if restart to properly co-ordinated operation.

severe cases of cardiomyopathy that can not be correct surgical methods can be considered as a potential option for heart transplantation.But such operations are carried out only in highly specialized clinics.

Some success in the treatment of cardiomyopathy obtained stem cells.

After passing one of the methods of treatment should be monitored by a doctor or therapist general practitioner, mandatory consultation cardiologist cardiology center or clinic.Multiplicity observation 1 - 2 times a year, when indicated - more often.Repeated studies should be conducted with a deterioration in general condition, or changes in the planning of the course of treatment.Patients with life-threatening arrhythmias in history you must annually perform Holter ECG.For successful treatment and improving the quality of life of patients is necessary: ​​to reduce excess body weight, give up smoking and alcohol, to control blood pressure, limit the amount of exercise.

cardiomyopathy Complications and prognosis.

  • Heart Failure.Cardiomyopathy may reduce the blood flow from the left ventricle that leads to heart failure.
  • Valvular dysfunction.Expansion left ventricle can obstruct blood flow through the valve, resulting in a backflow of blood.This causes the heart to contract less efficiently.
  • Edema. Cardiomyopathy can cause fluid accumulation in the lung tissues of the abdomen, legs and feet, because your heart can not pump blood efficiently as a healthy heart.
  • Disturbances of heart rhythm (arrhythmia). changes in cardiac structure and changes in the pressure chamber of the heart can cause heart rhythm problems.
  • sudden cardiac arrest. Cardiomyopathy can cause sudden cardiac arrest.
  • Embolism.Combining blood (stasis) in the left ventricle may lead to the formation of blood clots that can enter the bloodstream, to cut off blood flow to vital organs and cause a stroke, heart attack or damage to other organs.

prognosis depends on many factors as you will be treated effectively and comply with all instructions of the doctor, what the severity of the symptoms you have on the stage of initial detection.Effective ways of preventing this disease has not been developed.Therefore, an active lifestyle, proper nutrition is the key to your health!

therapists Zhumagazy EN