Lymphadenitis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Diseases Of The Heart And Blood Vessels

Lymphadenitis - an inflammation of the nodes of the lymphatic system.

peripheral lymph nodes are the organs of the lymphatic system, the composition of which are present in cells that provide a protective function, are connected to the circulatory system.These units are specific protective filters, which prevent the penetration of harmful substances and their dissemination through the body.Lymphadenitis refers to a group of acute purulent infections.In rare cases, lymphadenitis is the direct primary disease, often - as a complication of another that occurred earlier disease - it may be a non-specific process: boil, felon, carbuncle, thrombophlebitis, or any other purulent wound.In more rare cases, the formation of lymphadenitis may be due to more serious specific diseases, such as plague, tuberculosis, actinomycosis, and others.The most frequent site of localization processes: the armpits, groin, neck and submandibular lymph nodes.

Possible causes lymphadenitis

Lymphadenitis develops due to lymph no

de infection by various microorganisms, the most common cause is Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and various types of diplococci (Pneumococcus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.Immediate increase in lymph node is due to accumulation of inflammatory cells in the reaction zone, wherein the microorganism is detected.In most cases, these microorganisms enter the lymph node through the lymph vessels to the lymph current from the infected area of ​​the body, the so-called primary focus of infection.This may be a purulent wound, localized on the surface of the skin, purulent-necrotic inflammation of the hair follicle or a boil.

Hematogenous route of infection (through the blood) occurs just as often as a consequence of limfagenny and focus of infection in the internal organs (inflammatory diseases of liver, ovarian, colon, tonsillitis and others).

more rare pin pathogen transmission path directly in contact infectious material and lymph node tissue.Perhaps the penetration of bacteria directly into a lymph node when it is wound.In such cases, it lymphadenitis acts as a primary disease.

Once in the lymph node, the microorganism begins to send the products of its vital surrounding tissue, causing inflammation and further tissue and purulent meltdown.The changes in the surrounding tissue can restrict inflammation serous or purulent go in to form a phlegmonous adenitis.

Symptoms lymphadenitis

Acute lymphadenitis starts brightly enough, with sharp pain and swelling of the lymph nodes, which is not rarely leads to restriction of mobility of the body parts, next to which was formed lymphadenitis.Man begins to disturb the constant, dull or aching headache, there is a general weakness may malaise, fever.

initial stage lymphadenitis, cervical lymph nodes.

serous lymphadenitis character gives a slight violation of the general condition of the patient.It appears dull pain in the regional lymph nodes;the latter can be increased sufficiently thick compared to the healthy and slightly painful on palpation, the skin over the affected lymph nodes are not changed.With further progression of the inflammatory response in the lymph node, lymphatic tissue destruction occurs with development of purulent fusion and the formation of necrotic tissue.

When purulent lymphadenitis pain is sharp, sometimes twitch nature.The skin over the inflamed lymph node hyperemia (has a bright red color, indicating inflammation), pain during palpation revealed.If even with serous lymphadenitis lymph nodes are not merged in the early stages of each other, they continue to merge with each other and surrounding tissues become immobile.

chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis is the result of long-term chronic untreated infection.Chronic lymphadenitis may occur without obvious symptoms at all or does not manifest itself.Usually it is a little low-grade fever of about 37 degrees C, to which a person eventually gets used and does not notice slight swelling in the area of ​​the affected lymph nodes.

When phlegmonous adenitis , which is formed by untreated purulent lymphadenitis determined diffuse flushing of the skin, tight, without clear boundaries edema with areas of softening.The body temperature rises to high numbers, there is a fever, expressed heart palpitations, headache, marked weakness.Until this state, the disease is not necessary to bring, because it can lead to severe complications.

purulent fusion of supraclavicular lymph node.

When the first symptoms of lymphadenitis, such as lymph node tenderness, swelling, fever should immediately consult a doctor or therapist surgeon.These experts will help determine the cause of lymphadenitis immediately and appropriate treatment or further diagnosis.Under the guise of lymphadenitis can hide a variety of diseases such as plague, tuberculosis, various neoplastic processes.When tumor processes, as a rule, increases the group of lymph nodes, they are very dense to the touch, not mobile and often painless.When the plague, tuberculosis, tularemia, except as in the inflammatory process lymphadenitis, there will be other specific manifestations of these diseases.Distinguish inflammatory lymphadenitis of specific may be difficult, so the self-diagnosis can lead to tragic consequences.

Diagnostics

lymphadenitis Lymph nodes are in a healthy person, soft, not increased, displaceable relative to the adjacent tissue, painless.Very often in people with a normal physique lymph nodes probe fails.Well, they are found in children and adolescents slim build.In the diagnosis of the doctor in the first place will make examination of the lymph nodes and installs all of the above symptoms.Next guided findings, will decide on the laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis.The options are:

  • General blood test, which will determine the qualitative and quantitative changes in the composition.If you suspect a tumor blood processes may be performed node biopsy (puncture lymph node tissue sampling) for histological examination.
  • In surgical pathology will be made diognosticheski-curative operation incision and drainage of the cavity formed.Inspection bodies closest to the presence of abscesses and other purulent wounds.
  • For specific lymphadenitis allow for contact with TB patients and conduct a series of diagnostic tests: skin and allergy tests and microscopic examinations (blood, sputum), X-ray examination for suspected tuberculosis.
  • In children the doctor at survey should exclude angioedema, as one of the types of allergic reaction that can be life-threatening;swelling in the neck, as well as congenital cysts, which are similar to enlarged nodes.
  • If a patient detects a badly swollen lymph nodes in the groin, the doctor must rule out a hernia in the groin to prevent further progression of the hernia and prevent it from pinching.Hernias occur in 1% of the population, 85% of patients with hernias men.
  • In some cases, depending on the accompanying symptoms will need to make a sighting diagnostic methods such as ultrasound of peripheral lymph nodes and abdominal organs such as the spleen and liver;testing for HIV infection;ENT examination and computed tomography.

must be remembered that an accurate diagnosis can only put people with higher medical education, who will appreciate the whole picture as a whole, given the data in the aggregate.

Treatment lymphadenitis

treatment of early forms of lymphadenitis is the creation of peace for the affected area, where is the lymph node, is widely used physiotherapy (galvanization, iontophoresis, ultrasound therapy), anti-inflammatory ointment.At any stage of the disease it is necessary the use of antibiotics with proven infectious cause of the disease.Antibiotics susceptibility determined by the spectrum.When nonspecific infectious lymphadenitis apply antibiotics penicillin, cephalosporins 2nd generation (Cefuroxime).If confirmed TB infection treatment is carried out strictly in a hospital-specific anti-TB therapy.

When lymphadenitis abscess is an urgent need to make drainage festering cavity.This procedure must be performed under sterile conditions in order to avoid joining a secondary infection.After drainage is necessary to keep dressings and wound treatment.

If the biopsy confirmed the tumor process is benign or malignant, may require complex chemo-therapy and radiation.

Traditional methods of treatment are possible only in the initial stages lymphadenitis, and only in combination with medication.To remove the inflammatory response and the reduction of further progression is possible to use an extract from the leaves of AloeVera for compresses on the affected area.

complications lymphadenitis

This disease can be complicated by the following states: cutaneous abscess, osteomyelitis, meningitis, encephalitis, septic arthritis and septicemia.The last mentioned state when not effective or incorrect treatment can lead to disability and death of the patient.

Prevention lymphadenitis

In order to avoid the possibility of forming lymphadenitis, requires prompt treatment of any skin wounds and chronic infections, compliance with safety precautions to avoid injury.Maintain a proper level of immunity and promptly seek medical attention.With regard to power, it is necessary not to use certain products, which may enhance the inflammatory response.This meat fat and coarse fiber (especially lamb and pork), spicy, salty and smoked;dairy.It promotes healing foods rich in vitamin C.

therapists Zhumagazy EN