Atrial fibrillation - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
fibrillation - a rapid irregular atrial contraction, in which the frequency of their rate exceeds 350 per minute.The appearance of fibrillation is characterized by irregular contraction of the ventricles.Atrial fibrillation - a type of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (atrial fibrillation).If the reduction of myocardial fibers occurs at a slower pace -.. 200-400 beats / min, this type of atrial fibrillation called atrial flutter.
Atrial fibrillation is one of the complications of coronary heart disease (CHD), along with other cardiac arrhythmias.This is one the most common cardiac arrhythmias.In addition to the cause of coronary heart disease atrial fibrillation may be the disease of the thyroid gland, accompanied by its increased function and rheumatism (not to be confused with back pain - is not rheumatism).
Atrial fibrillation happens in two main forms.It temporary or paroxysmal and persistent or chronic form.
Symptoms of atrial fibrillation are the same as for other arrhythmias:
- sense of disruption of the heart;
- feeling "gurgling" in the chest;
- possible fainting;
From complications of atrial fibrillation can be identified strokes and gangrene as a result of arterial thrombosis.Most people with atrial fibrillation (especially if the duration of atrial fibrillation than 48 hours) are at increased risk of blood clots, which, due to their mobility, may contribute to the development of stroke.Blood clots form because blood "whipped" in the mixer because of the chaotic atrial wall.Then atrial thrombus adheres to the inner wall.
If you take the appropriate drugs, the risk of thrombosis is significantly reduced.Therefore, a regular intake of drugs prescribed by your doctor, will help prevent the development of complications, improve the quality and length of your life.
transition of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in permanent form can contribute to the development or progression of chronic heart failure.Symptoms
AF Atrial fibrillation - the most common form of supraventricular arrhythmias, atrial reduced whereby randomly with frequency, usually 400-600 per minute without coordination with the heart ventricles.The role of the filter frequency conducted to the ventricles pulse performs the AV node (atrioventricular node normally able to hold up to 140-200 counts per minute).Therefore, when atrial fibrillation is only part of the pulse reaches the ventricles, and their reduction is irregular, resembling flicker (hence the name of atrial fibrillation).Sinus node at the same time loses its function pacemaker.
appearance of atrial fibrillation accompanied by a sharp quickening of the heart rate, which may be accompanied by a sudden feeling of palpitations, disruptions in the heart, general weakness, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, anxiety, chest pain.Sometimes the attack is fast (within a few seconds or minutes), without medication or other medical interventions.However, very often the heart itself does not pass, can last for a long time (hours, days) and need to seek medical help.
The risk of developing atrial fibrillation
- Age.With age, may be electrical and structural changes in the atria, which contributes to the development of atrial fibrillation.
- organic heart disease, including heart disease, surgeries on open heart, increasing the risk of developing atrial fibrillation.
- other chronic diseases.Thyroid disease, hypertension and other pathology may contribute to atrial fibrillation.
- Alcohol is a known "starter" bouts of atrial fibrillation.
diagnosis of atrial fibrillation
- Register electrocardiogram.
- Holter - Hour electrocardiogram in normal mode of life of the patient.
- Record paroxysms of atrial fibrillation in a mode on-line (real time) - a kind of Holter monitoring - a portable device that allows you to transfer telephone electrocardiogram signals at the moment of attack.
Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation
can wear paroxysmal (paroxysmal) and permanent character.
If we are dealing with a bout of atrial fibrillation, it is necessary to try to stop (especially if it is the first occurrence of an arrhythmia in your life).
If you have a permanent form of atrial fibrillation, requires constant administration of drugs to control heart rate and prevent stroke.
What are the methods of relief (termination) of atrial fibrillation?
most effective drugs are procainamide (oral and intravenous) and quinidine (inside) to stop the attacks of atrial fibrillation.Their use can only be prescribed by a doctor under the control of ECG and blood pressure levels.Cordarone (oral and intravenous) and Propanorm (inside) are also used.
Application propranolol, verapamil and digoxin for relief of atrial fibrillation is less effective, but by reducing the heart rate, they improve the health of patients (dyspnea, general weakness, palpitations).
most effective method for the relief of atrial fibrillation is electrical cardioversion (90%).However, due to the need for general anesthesia short (narcosis) resorted to it in the case where the condition of the patient against the background of progressively deteriorating arrhythmia, a positive effect of the medication is not expected or not (for example, by prescription arrhythmias).
WARNING!If you have developed an attack of atrial fibrillation - immediately seek medical attention, as this arrhythmia is desirable to stop in the next 48 hours (!).After this time dramatically increases the risk of intracardiac blood clots and their associated complications (stroke). Therefore, if atrial fibrillation continues for more than two days, it is sure to take warfarin (to reduce clotting of the blood) for 3-4 weeks, and only then you can try to stop it.If successful, receiving warfarin should continue for a further 4 weeks, while maintaining atrial fibrillation will have to take it continuously.
After successful restoration of sinus rhythm is usually appointed by antiarrhythmic drugs (VFS, Propanorm, Sotaleks, Cordarone) for the prevention of recurrent episodes of atrial fibrillation.
Which therapeutic measures are carried out at a constant form of atrial fibrillation?
If you set a permanent form of atrial fibrillation (that is, all attempts were unsuccessful relief of arrhythmia) it is important to perform two tasks: to ensure control of heart rate (about 70-80 beats per minute at rest), and prevention of blood clots.The first problem will help solve the chronic administration of Digoxin, blockers (Egilok, atenolol, Concor), calcium antagonists (verapamil, diltiazem) or combinations thereof.The second solution provides continuous warfarin under the control of the state of blood coagulation (prothrombin ratio, or INR).
Are there methods of radical elimination of atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation)?
only by the radical elimination of atrial fibrillation is radiofrequency pulmonary vein isolation.Because of the complexity and high cost, this catheter operation is carried out only in major federal centers.The effectiveness of it is 50-70%.
Also, with frequent paroxysms of atrial fibrillation and permanent form of atrial fibrillation may conduct radiofrequency ablation of the AV node, which creates an artificial complete transverse block (AV block III degree) and implanted a permanent pacemaker.In fact, atrial fibrillation is, but the person does not feel it.
atrial fibrillation is not associated with a high risk of sudden death, so it can not fatal arrhythmia, such as ventricular fibrillation.