Gastritis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Diseases Org. Indigestion

Gastritis - inflammation of the mucosa (in some cases and deeper layers) walls of the stomach.The most common cause of gastritis is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, however, contribute to the development of gastritis may be poor diet, chronic stress, smoking, alcoholism.The symptoms of gastritis are stomach pain on an empty stomach or after eating, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, and others. Gastritis diagnosis is based on endoscopic examination of the stomach.Treatment is carried out by assigning a clinical nutrition - diet and medication - antibiotics, agents that reduce or increase the acidity of gastric juice and medications to protect the stomach from hydrochloric acid.

forms of gastritis

From the perspective of the disease Gastritis can be acute or chronic .

Acute gastritis is most often develops in a few hours or days and is the result of a massive infection of Helicobacter pylori, bacteria or other (food poisoning) and receiving chemicals with damaging effect on gastric muco

sa (acids, alkalis, alcohols) shell.Such corrosive substances, ultimately, can lead to ulcers and even perforation of the stomach.

mechanism of gastritis following: in response to damage to the mucous membrane of the stomach are allocated a special substance, which called for "the accident" the cells of the immune system responsible for the speedy removal of pathogenic substances from the body.These immune system cells develop rough activity, which outwardly manifests as inflammatory response.Thus, inflammation in gastritis it is not only the destruction of the manifestation of the gastric mucosa, but an attempt to restore the integrity of the organism.

There are several types of acute gastritis:

  • simple (catarrhal) gastritis: is caused by ingestion of stale food contaminated with pathogens (food poisoning), when rotaviroze, allergy to some food or as a result of damagegastric mucosa certain medications.When catarrhal gastritis mucosa slightly destroyed (only the surface layer) and the termination of the stimulating factor is quickly restored.
  • Erosive gastritis: develops after ingestion of certain concentrated acids or alkalis (chemical burn of the stomach lining).When corrosive gastritis destroyed not only the surface but also deeper layers of the gastric mucosa, so this form of the disease often gives rise to peptic ulcer or scar formation.
  • Phlegmonous gastritis: is purulent inflammation of the stomach, which can develop as a result of contact with the wall of the stomach of a foreign object (eg, a fish bone), followed by infection with pyogenic infection in the area.A distinctive feature of this type of gastritis is heat and unbearable pain in the epigastric region.Gastric abscess requires immediate surgical intervention.Without medical care disease becomes peritonitis (inflammation of extensive abdominal organs), and ends with death.
  • Fibrinous gastritis: very rare with sepsis (blood poisoning).

With proper treatment, acute gastritis (depending on the form) lasts up to 5-7 days, but the full stomach restoration occurs much later.

In most cases, acute gastritis is accompanied by increased production of gastric acid and hydrochloric acid ( gastritis with high acidity, gastritis hyperacid ).Often acute gastritis may progress to chronic.

chronic form of gastritis

the transition of acute gastritis, chronic gastritis, frequent recurrences of disease, poor treatment, long-term effects on the gastric mucosa irritants.Chronic gastritis may occur a long time without showing any symptoms.The cause of chronic gastritis, other than those described above, are the following factors:

  • mucosa Helicobacter pylori defeat (gastritis type B)
  • action of their own immune cells against the gastric mucosa - autoimmune gastritis (type A)
  • Casting bile from the duodenumstomach - reflux gastritis (type C).

Helicobacter pylori - one of the causes of chronic gastritis

In chronic gastritis gastric mucosa is affected much deeper and broader than in acute gastritis.A characteristic feature of chronic gastritis is a gradual overgrowth of connective tissue mucosa of the stomach, the replacement cells that produce the gastric juice (atrophy of the gastric mucosa).Chronic gastritis is often accompanied by a decrease in production of gastric juices and acids ( hypoacid gastritis ).

long time (especially in the beginning of the disease), chronic gastritis are asymptomatic.The development of the disease, there are usually periods of exacerbation and remission.During periods of exacerbation of chronic gastritis may appear intermittent episodes of pain, discomfort at the top of the abdomen, a feeling of heaviness, nausea after eating, heartburn, which speaks about the violation of natural "valve" function of the stomach and the casting of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus.Also can appear signs of food digestion in the intestine: episodes of diarrhea or constipation, bloating (flatulence), increased rumbling.
infection Helicobacter pylori, a parasite in the stomach, breaks the renewal of the mucous membrane;thus, when old cells die, new can not be formed.This leads to a gradual degradation of the gastric mucosa with loss of glandular producing gastric juice.

causes of gastritis Gastritis

manifested by inflammation and destruction of the gastric mucosa.The inflammatory response in the human body always evolving in response to healthy tissue damaging factors.If it can be gastritis infection, chemicals, high or low temperatures.
In most cases, the cause of gastritis is infection of the gastric mucosa bacterium Helicobacter pylori. This mechanism of gastritis has been established recently, but his discovery revolutionized the treatment and prevention of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer.Infection with Helicobacter pylori (Helicobacter pylori infection) selectively affects the gastric mucosa and causes destruction on its surface gastritis type or deeper destruction, according to the type of peptic ulcer disease.However, H. pylori can exist peacefully in the stomach without causing disease, until there are precipitating factors: the weakening of immunity, getting irritating substances in the stomach, hormonal disorders.

gastritis also may develop as a result of the gastric mucosa burn various chemical substances (alcohol, alkali, acid), it is seen in people with alcohol abuse or if you accidentally ingested substances that attack living tissues (vinegar, acid, alkali).Taking certain drugs (aspirin and other anti-inflammatory drugs, some antibiotics) may also trigger gastritis, wherein the drug from the group of anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, diclofenac, indomethacin, etc.) Cause gastritis, not only due to direct stimulation of the gastric mucosa, but alsoby disrupting the molecular mechanisms of protection of the gastric mucosa, gastritis may therefore occur even in the case where these drugs are used in the form of ointments or injection.

Very often the cause of gastritis is the wrong diet:

  • hasty meal and poorly chewed food or food "in suhomyatku" injure the mucous membrane mechanically
  • Eating too hot or too cold food causes gastritis due to thermal damage to the stomach lining.
  • Eating spicy food (mostly acute and highly salty foods) irritate the stomach similar to the action of corrosive chemicals.

Causes autoimmune gastritis

gastritis often develops due to increased aggressiveness of the immune system with respect to the gastric mucosa.It is found that in some instances the immune system begins to operate not against bacteria, but against the body's own cells (autoimmune disease).In the case when the "attack" of the immune system is exposed to the gastric mucosa, a so-called autoimmune gastritis .In autoimmune gastritis, gastric mucosal cells are destroyed by cells of the immune system and emissions of antibodies.In the development of autoimmune gastritis are important hereditary factors, and previous episodes of gastric mucosa irritation.

Causes of acute gastritis

The causes of acute gastritis may be errors in nutrition, food poisoning, irritating some medicines (salicylates, bromide, antibiotics, sulfonamides), food allergy (to strawberries, mushrooms and so on. D.), Sharpinfection, metabolic disorders.Acute gastritis is characterized by the sudden appearance and severity of symptoms.Often find out the causes of this disorder is not possible.

Causes of gastritis can be chemical, mechanical, thermal effects, and bacterial infection.Inflammation can affect only the superficial layers of the mucous membrane or distributed throughout its thickness, affecting even the muscular layer of the stomach wall.

Causes of chronic gastritis

Chronic gastritis is sometimes the result of further development of acute gastritis, but often develops under the influence of repeated and prolonged malnutrition, eating spicy and rough food, addiction to hot food, poor chewing, eating dry rations, the excessive use ofspirits, long uncontrolled taking medication.In 75% of cases of chronic gastritis combined with chronic cholecystitis, appendicitis and other diseases of the digestive system.

Most people gastritis develops under the influence of all the above factors: wrong mode power injure the gastric mucosa, which becomes susceptible to infection effect (Helicobacter pylori infection), and primary destruction of the gastric mucosa from injury and infection triggers an autoimmune mechanisms that facilitate the further development of the disease.

Signs and symptoms of gastritis:

gastritis often occurs asymptomatic , however, sooner or later, symptoms of gastritis still occur: heaviness in the stomach after eating, pain in the upper abdomen on an empty stomach or after eating, nausea,vomiting, belching, loss of appetite, weight loss - it is the first possible symptoms of gastritis.Signs and symptoms of gastritis can appear and disappear depending on the development of the disease and providing treatment.

Symptoms and signs of gastritis depend on the form of the disease.

Common symptoms of gastritis : Patients report feeling of heaviness and fullness in the epigastric region, nausea, weakness, tongue coated gray-white coating may be drooling or, conversely, severe dry mouth.

There are chronic gastritis with normal and elevated secretion (acidity) - anatsidny and hyperacid with secretory deficiency (low acidity) - hypoacid gastritis.

Symptoms of chronic gastritis with increased and normal acidity: pain, heartburn, belching with a sour taste, a feeling of heaviness after eating, sometimes - constipation.

Gastritis with high acidity observed heartburn, acid regurgitation, and sometimes vomiting.Patients concerned about pain in the epigastric region, and night hunger pains.

symptoms of gastritis with low acidity: a bad taste in the mouth, loss of appetite, nausea, especially in the morning, burping air, rumbling and transfusion in the abdomen, constipation or diarrhea.

Symptoms of chronic gastritis with low acidity: unpleasant taste in the mouth, excessive salivation, nausea, feeling of fullness in the epigastric region, signs of anemia, loss of appetite and weight, diarrheal disorders with long-term multi-year flow - weight loss, general weakness.

Acute gastritis is characterized by symptoms:

  • abdominal pain: sharp paroxysmal or persistent painful.Often it depends on the meal: amplifies an empty stomach or after a certain time after a meal;
  • nausea constant or intermittent, often occurs immediately after a meal;
  • heartburn - an unpleasant burning sensation in the chest, occurs after a meal;
  • belching with a sour smell, after a meal or on an empty stomach;
  • repeated vomiting, stomach contents, first with a sour smell and taste, then clean with mucus, sometimes yellow or greenish and bitter taste (bile);
  • excessive salivation - reaction to indigestion;sometimes dry mouth (after several bouts of vomiting due to dehydration)
  • violation of the chair: constipation or diarrhea; www.7gy portal about
  • of the entire organism: the expressed general weakness, dizziness, headache, sweating, fever, decreased blood pressure, increased heart rate - tachycardia.

Acute erosive gastritis, in addition to symptoms of acute gastritis manifested signs of stomach bleeding:

Simtomy: abdominal pain of an empty stomach or after 1 - 1.5 hours after meals, heartburn, belching, nausea, vomiting
hallmark is the appearance of vomitmasses of dark blood clots form in the veins or
dark dёgteobrazny chair also indicates the presence of internal bleeding.

Symptoms of chronic atrophic gastritis (including autoimmune gastritis)

  • decreased appetite,
  • unpleasant taste in the mouth,
  • belching foul putrid odor,
  • bloating, heaviness in the stomach after eating,
  • dull painimmediately after a meal or 15-20 minutes,
  • nausea after meals,
  • constipation or diarrhea,
  • bloating, rumbling in the abdomen, bloating,
  • anemia, brittle and dry hair, nails bundle.
  • Often described above violations digestion leads to weight loss, severe weakness, drowsiness, irritability person.

Chronic gastritis occurs with periodic exacerbations and remissions.In practically disappear during remission of disease symptoms, but reappear in the period of acute illness.Exacerbation of chronic gastritis may be seasonal (eg spring and autumn), and can also be triggered by a violation of the diet, smoking, alcohol consumption of certain drugs.

Gastritis in children

gastritis in children is less common than in adults. main cause of gastritis in children is Helicobacter pylori infection, malnutrition, food poisoning, rotavirus infection.Most of the children gastritis develops after the start of school attendance, and disruption of the normal diet.

Children gastritis occurs in acute form.The symptoms of gastritis in children may be more severe than in adults: vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, poor appetite.

Diagnosis and treatment of gastritis in children do not differ from those in adults.

Diagnosis gastritis

Currently main method of diagnosing gastritis is fibrogastroduodenoendoskopiya (EGD) - examination of the gastric mucosa by means of a probe and a biopsy (taking a piece of the mucous membrane in the analysis).EGD to distinguish gastritis from gastric ulcer.Based on the data obtained during the EGD gastritis is divided into erosive and non-erosive .

Erosive (corrosive) gastritis - a type of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach (gastritis), which is accompanied by the appearance of erosions on it - visible damage sites.Such gastritis occurs during treatment with certain drugs (mainly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), alcohol consumption, or the ingestion of chemically aggressive substances.This type of gastritis usually is acute, sometimes bleeding episodes.