Gum disease : gingivitis, periodontitis (gum disease ) , periodontal disease - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Diseases Org. Indigestion

Today, many of us are faced with the problem of gum disease.It begins, in our opinion, is harmless - with a little bleeding when brushing your teeth or bad breath.But if time does not take action, the effects of gum disease may not always comforting.Let's look in more detail with the most common diseases of the gums - gingivitis, periodontitis and periodontal disease .

Each tooth is in the hole (alveolus) or bones of the upper and lower jaw is secured thereto by means of cords.If the ligaments are not involved in the inflammatory process, we are talking about gingivitis if involved, and even destroyed - about periodontitis if the inflammatory process is attached to degenerative - about periodontal disease.So:


Gingivitis - (. Gingiva is an armor - gums, itis - inflammation) - an inflammation of the gums, occurs without compromising the integrity of the periodontal attachment.

As a rule, the main cause of gingivitis is the soft plaque that accumulates on the teeth and gums with bad

oral hygiene.This raid is the ideal environment for the life and reproduction of microorganisms causing inflammation.

But the cause of gingivitis may lie much deeper, and this can be dealt with only by a doctor, self-diagnosis in this case is unacceptable.It may be lack of vitamins A, B1, C and E. At deficiency of these vitamins in the body gum tissues become looser and less resistant to infections.

Cardiovascular disease, chronic gastrointestinal disease, blood disorders are often accompanied by gingivitis.Chronic lead poisoning, bismuth, aluminum, mercury, iodine, bromine, can also cause the development of this disease.

hormonal changes in adolescence and pregnancy also often accompanied by inflammation of the gums.
Reduced immunity, which often happens after infectious diseases, often accompanied by ulcerative gingivitis.

Symptoms of gingivitis

Typically, gingivitis does not cause pronounced pain.Most often it manifests itself by bleeding gums while eating and brushing your teeth.When gingivitis can bother a bad taste in the mouth, bad breath, you may be swelling and redness of the gums.

Photo Gingivitis

In ulcerative gingivitis occurs ulceration of the gums, accompanied by quite severe pain.It appears putrid breath, bleeding gums even with a light touch.

Photo Ulcerative Gingivitis

The use of traditional medicine and self-treatment methods which basically boil down to rinse the mouth with antiseptic solutions herbal relieve some symptoms of gingivitis, but can not cope with the cause of gum disease.Therefore, the occurrence of even the initial and usually painless symptoms of gingivitis - it is an occasion to see a doctor, a periodontist, who will select an adequate individual treatment.

Treatment of gingivitis Treatment of gingivitis

begin after identifying its root causes.If the cause was poor oral hygiene and as a result, the formation of plaque and tartar, then held professional teeth cleaning and removal of dental plaque.

Professional cleaning - is the removal of hard and soft plaque and tartar removal.Hard plaque and tartar is removed by special ultrasonic tip.After the removal of dental plaque tooth surfaces are polished with abrasive pastes.High-quality polishing of the teeth prevents the re-formation of dental plaque.

then conducted antiseptic treatment of inflamed gums, bandage with drugs, anti-inflammatory treatment is given, if necessary, vitamins.After the treatment is mandatory physician should teach the patient self-correct tooth brushing, choose a toothbrush, toothpaste and mouthwash.

If you do not pay attention to the first signs of gum disease and not to take measures for its treatment, the inflammatory process involves the tissue surrounding the tooth.There ...


Periodontitis - an inflammatory disease of the tissues surrounding the tooth, with the involvement of the ligamentous apparatus and, often, the jawbone.

gums in periodontitis is usually inflamed, bleeding may be a purulent discharge from the gums.

hallmark in periodontitis is education, in addition to the soft plaque, the so-called solid plaque or tartar.

Plaque is formed not only in the supragingival tooth portion, but also under the gum, and in this case it permanently injure the gums.Plaque contains a large number of pathogenic microorganisms that contribute to inflammation.It extends to the bone structure, which collapsed, leading to loosening, and in severe cases even loss of teeth.

Besides dental plaque, periodontal disease leads to the development of common diseases such as diabetes, various immune deficiencies, blood disorders, severe chronic diseases of internal organs.

also proved traumatic group of reasons - is the wrong (traumatic) bite, crowding, and abnormalities of the teeth, high attachment bridles and strands of the oral mucosa, hypertonicity masticatory muscles

If left unattended and this state, there is a complete destruction of the bone that holds thetooth.As a consequence, in periodontitis occurs tooth mobility, there is a "baring" the roots of teeth.

Treatment of periodontitis

Treatment of periodontitis depends on the severity of the course and on the presence of comorbidities.Today spectrum techniques (both non-surgical and surgical) is very wide and depends on the severity of the disease.

Modern methods of treatment of periodontitis completely painless, effective, and in most cases, the doctor and the patient achieved good results.

treatment begins with the removal of dental plaque, professional oral hygiene.For this special ultrasonic tips (scalers) are used.Doctor prescribes anti-inflammatory therapy (it may be in the form of trays, rinsing, applications, into tablets or combinations thereof).If periodontal disease was a common symptom of the disease, referred to a specialist.

in advanced inflammatory process used surgical methods of treatment of periodontitis, in which dental plaque is removed from the roots of the teeth, eliminating the pathological periodontal pocket.Then also assigned drug therapy.For surgical procedures can also include surgery, eliminating the high attachment bridles and strands of the oral mucosa, as well as the removal of "bad" teeth to preserve the jawbone, which can be used for dental implants.

an important role in successful treatment can play and orthopedic techniques - splinting teeth and adequate prosthesis.In the complex treatment of periodontitis are various methods of splinting teeth.Splinting means "binding" of mobile teeth in a single unit that strengthens loose teeth and prevents their loosening.For this use various orthopedic structures which are fabricated in a dental laboratory.And splinting is performed by modern fiberglass composites.Such composite cement tire attached to the inner surface of the teeth, and fixes the teeth is not apparent to others.

With such factors as traumatic occlusion and incorrect position of teeth, to help cope orthodontist.

also widely used in periodontics physiotherapy (laser, photodynamic therapy, electrophoresis).

Application of the aforementioned events - the key to successful treatment of periodontitis.

Often the term periodontitis confused with periodontal disease , and because they are of different nature of origin.


Periodontal disease - a systemic non-inflammatory lesion periodontal tissue (periodontal).

Periodontal disease is relatively rare (1-8%) and is not an inflammatory disease of the gums.

Causes of periodontal disease is not established until the end, it is considered that the important role played by genetic predisposition.Often gums periodontitis occurs in systemic diseases, diabetes, and others. Disorders of the endocrine glands, chronic diseases of internal organs.Malocclusion, anomalies of the teeth may be contributing factors in periodontal disease.

Symptoms of periodontal disease

This gum disease is different from the two previous occurrence of a nature.Gingivitis and periodontitis - gum inflammatory diseases, periodontal disease - dystrophic.Thus, the symptoms are different.If periodontal disease is not found bleeding gums, their pain, and swelling.The teeth are well fixed in the bone or dental plaque is not insignificant, bare necks of the teeth, can develop "a wedge-shaped defect."This leads to hypersensitivity of the teeth to different temperature and chemical irritants.The mobility of the teeth only develops in a significant destruction of bone tissue (more than ½).Still, the main symptom for which the diagnosis and severity of the disease, is the atrophy of bone tissue.This symptom is detected on the radiograph of the jaw, the right to "read" that can only be a doctor.

Photography Symptoms of periodontal disease on chest radiograph

absence of loosening of the teeth, maintaining their strong position in the hole is the hallmark symptom of periodontal disease.

Treatment of periodontitis

Treatment of established periodontal disease, as well as other gum diseases, must be complex and chosen strictly individually.But in this case, priority is given to surgical methods, which essentially boils down to the use of the complex so-called osteoplastic materials (materials that contribute to the formation of bone tissue).

Of course, if necessary, carried out professional oral hygiene, orthodontic treatment for malocclusion and abnormally arranged teeth.

The complex therapeutic measures in periodontal disease is effective and physiotherapy (massages, electrophoresis, etc.), improving blood circulation in the periodontal tissues.
should not forget about the treatment of the underlying disease, if periodontal disease - a symptom of his companion.
Remember - a comprehensive treatment of periodontal disease in the early stages is very effective and will help you to avoid premature loss of teeth!

Disease Prevention gums

Prevention of gum disease considered reduced to the following simple rules:

• Regular visits to the dentist for the purpose of inspection or preventive dental health. Remember - only the doctor will be able to see and correct diagnosis, even in the very beginning of disease.
• Daily and proper oral hygiene using a toothbrush chosen physician, toothpaste and brush for language, dental floss (floss) and rinse.Also, your dentist may recommend the use of additional hygiene products (eg special brushes for braces or irrigator - "water" massager, etc.).
• A healthy lifestyle that includes both changes in eating habits (reducing the amount of sweet and soft food, which is "sticking" to the teeth, is also a favorite food of bacteria, and increased solid food during chewing which the mechanical cleaning of the teeth, as well as improvedblood circulation in the gums) and avoiding harmful habits.

Remember - the disease is always easier and cheaper to prevent than to cure!Following these simple rules will help you stay healthy for a long time and smile more often!

FAQ doctor - periodontist on gum disease:

teeth are all healthy, was at a reception at a local hospital a week ago.But when brushing your gums bleed slightly.What could be the reason?We doctors do not say anything, can you tell me?Lisa, 25 years
Most likely, we are talking about gingivitis.If oral hygiene is satisfactory, it is necessary to understand more deeply and help you in this can a GP (general exclude pregnancy or disease) - if not, it is a professional oral hygiene.

what way there is the removal of tartar?Whether this procedure is very painful?How long does it take?Is there any negative side effects to the teeth?Andrew, 28y.o.
In most cases, removal of stones does not cause severe pain, but in some cases, especially if the stones under the gum, the procedure can be painful and it is performed with anesthesia.But, believe me, by the use of cleaning overrides the inconvenience that the patient may be experiencing.Stones removed by ultrasound and manually with special tools.Plaque can be removed and machine type AirFlow stream of a mixture of water, air and soda.It did not hurt, and the teeth become much lighter.

dentists Elvira Knyazev