Stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth ) with photo - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Diseases Org. Indigestion

Probably none of dental diseases has such diverse manifestations and such a vast number of reasons, such as stomatitis.

Stomatitis ( inflammation of the mouth cavity ) - a disease caused by a variety of factors, manifested by the appearance of a variety of inflammatory cells in the mucosa of the mouth and lips.

What causes stomatitis

causes of stomatitis are very diverse, but they can be grouped as follows:

1. Stomatitis traumatic origin (trauma can be mechanical, chemical or physical, acute or duration of exposure time).
2. Infectious stomatitis (viral, bacterial, fungal infections).
3. Allergic stomatitis.
4. Stomatitis in some systemic diseases (hypo- and avitaminosis, endocrine diseases, diseases of the blood system, gastrointestinal disease, and others.).

Diagnostics stomatitis

For correct diagnosis, the doctor, first of all, will bring history (conduct a poll), then carry out inspection of the oral cavity.Sometimes this is enough, but in some cases it is necessary to conduct special stu

dies - painting elements defeat special dyes, fluorescent study, general and biochemical blood tests, microscopic examination of scrapings from lesions element, conducting allergy tests.

Symptoms of stomatitis with photos and stomatitis treatment

Obviously, manifestations and treatment principles of all these stomatitis will be different.

Traumatic stomatitis symptoms and treatment.

oral mucosa has a certain "safety margin" to the effects of various traumatic factors.In case of intensive influence of a particular factor, exceeding the physiologic reserve, there is a traumatic lesion of the oral mucosa.Consider the most common types of traumatic factors - mechanical, chemical and physical.

Mechanical injury oral can be acute or chronic.Acute injuries occur in the mouth blows, wounding some object or accidental biting.Initially the site of injury there is pain and then can form a small hematoma (bleeding), erosion or ulcer.After 1-3 days the symptoms usually disappear.

Treatment of stomatitis is to remove the traumatic factors (eg, soshlifivka sharp edge seal or spalled tooth), treated with antiseptic solutions for the prevention of further infection (furatsillin, 3% hydrogen peroxide) and, in the presence of ulcers, application of so-called "keratoplasty"those.drugs that accelerate the recovery of the mucous membrane (oil solution of vitamin A, sea buckthorn oil, rosehip oil, solkoseril et al.).

Persistent (chronic) mechanical injury occur quite often.The reason for their appearance can be a sharp tooth edge with the defeat of his wrong position or caries in the dentition, "nepodognanny" prosthesis, orthodontic design and bad habits (biting the cheek or lip biting his sharp objects, etc.).On the effect of these factors oral mucosa can respond from a small redness and swelling to the formation of ulcers.

Treatment such stomatitis is primarily in the elimination of the traumatic factor.In the case of ulcers or erosions, they are also processed and antiseptic solutions keratoplasty.

The physical factors of traumatic include the impact of higher (if there is a burn) and low (frostbite) temperature, electric shock, and radiation injuries.A feature of these lesions is often irreversible lesion of the oral mucosa - necrosis, but it is only in extreme cases.Basically, these lesions are accompanied by the emergence of severe pain, redness of the mucous membrane, blistering, ulceration.Treatment consists of preventive antiseptic treatment of inflammatory cells, the appointment of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy, keratoplasty applications to accelerate healing.

Stomatitis chemical origin arise in the mucous membrane contact with acids and alkalis in strong enough concentrations.This can happen when a wrong use of them in the home and at work, at a reception at the dentist, often with suicide attempts.Burn acids characterized by the appearance at the site of the defeat of a dense film, around which there is swelling, redness, pain.If you get burned alkalis such a film is not formed, the defeat extends into the deepest layers of the oral mucosa, formed a very painful, slow-healing erosions and ulcers.

Treatment begins with the immediate removal of the harmful chemical agent and washing with a neutralizing solution.Acid In a burn can be used 0.1% ammonia solution (15 drops to a glass of water), and other soapy water weak alkali.Alkali neutralized 0.5% solution of acetic acid or citric acid.Further treatment of patients with chemical burns, boils down to pain relief, appointment of antiseptic solutions and accelerate epithelialization, keratoplasty in the form of rinses, mouth trays and applications.

Infectious stomatitis symptoms and treatment.

to viral stomatitis include diseases caused by the herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, and several others.

most frequently encountered is the failure of the mouth and lips with herpes simplex virus (according to the WHO the virus incidence is second only to the flu), so you should deal with it in more detail.

first meeting with the virus usually occurs in early childhood and causes acute herpetic stomatitis .The disease begins with general malaise, headache, raising the temperature to 37-41 ° C. After 1-2 days these symptoms joins pain in the mouth, worse in speaking and eating, oral mucosa becomes edematous.Then it appear smaller (the size of a grain of millet) bubbles are arranged in groups (from 2-3 to several tens), or merging into a large, filled with clear content bubbles.After 2-3 days they burst, forming small and large erosion, covered with white bloom.

saliva increases, it becomes viscous.

often to the oral lesion joined lips, mucous membrane of the nasal passages and mucous membranes of other organs.

After 5-15 days (depending on the severity of stomatitis) recovery occurs, scars are formed.After undergoing

primary herpes virus infection is, in most cases in humans.A person becomes infected with HIV.By reducing the protective properties of the organism (after injuries of the oral mucosa, hypothermia, myocardial disease, premenstrual period, etc.), the disease makes itself felt in the form chronic recurrent herpetic stomatitis .Recurrent herpes in the mouth more often localized on the hard palate, cheeks and tongue.

vesicles in herpetic stomatitis appear right group, merging, burst, forming a very painful erosion.General condition, as opposed to an acute form, typically does not suffer.

treatment of viral stomatitis is conducted in the following areas :

• neutralization of the virus, preventing the appearance of new lesions (using the antiviral drugs (acyclovir, oxoline, Arbidol, Zovirax and others in the form of tablets and ointments for topical use), at.recurrent stomatitis applied antiherpethetical polyvalent vaccine);
• Removal of intoxication (anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drugs);
• Strengthening the body's resistance (vitamin therapy (vit A and C), immunokorrektiruyuschimi drugs, for example, "immunal", "imudon", etc...)
• Pain relief, accelerated healing period of erosions, ulcers (drug-keratoplasty - vitamin A,rosehip oil, solkoseril, karotolin, physiotherapy);

Bacterial stomatitis, as is evident from their names, are provoked by bacteria (diplococci, streptococci, staphylococci, spirochetes, clostridia, gonococci, etc..).

The most common bacterial stomatitis occurs as erosive stomatitis , caused by diplococci.It affects both men and women of different ages.In most cases, erosive stomatitis develops after the flu, sore throat or other infection.Foster the development of the disease injuries, burns of mucous membrane of the mouth.

When erosive stomatitis first appears itching, burning, soreness in the mouth during a meal.Further, the area of ​​the lips (preferably lower), on the border of the solid and the soft palate, at least - the cheeks and tongue redness appears limited small size, which is then converted to erosion.Small erosion may coalesce, reaching more than 2 cm. Plaque and films on them does not happen.The disease lasts from 4 to 10 days.

the treatment of erosive stomatitis, as a rule, it is enough to local effects.It involves treating analgesics or antiseptics, and combinations thereof (as pastes, powders, ointments, gels), and anti-inflammatory applications epithelizing agents, or also a combination thereof.If necessary, your doctor may prescribe and general treatment (antibiotics or sulfanilamide drugs).Appoint such treatment himself in any case it is impossible!

much more serious form of bacterial stomatitis - necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis (Vincent ).Called microflora (fuzospirohety), which is normally located in the mouth (in the interdental spaces and periodontal, deep cavities in tonsils), but under certain conditions, becomes pathogenic character.Such conditions may be hypothermia, stress, trauma, teething "wisdom."Foster the development of diseases of poor oral hygiene, the presence of carious teeth, smoking, work in adverse conditions.

necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis can be a symptom of some very serious diseases such as leukemia, poisoning with heavy metal salts, pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, radiation injuries, immune deficiencies, so the symptoms of necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis is necessary to consult a doctor immediately!

Symptoms of necrotizing stomatitis in the beginning of the disease are similar to symptoms of other infectious disease - weakness, headache, fever, aching joints.Further, the intensity of these manifestations increases in the mouth there is very severe pain even at the slightest touch, eating and hygienic care becomes almost impossible.His mouth a sharp putrid smell appears.

ulceration of the gums begin with, and always with those areas where there is a traumatic factor (tartar, incorrectly-set crown, damaged teeth), then there is contact the spread of inflammation.

This disease is very characteristic change in the gums: they are swollen, loosened, very painful, bleed easily, even with a light touch.There is a gradual necrosis ( "dying") interdental gingival papillae, starting from the top and spreads to the ground, they take the form of a truncated cone.

Unfortunately, the disease may become chronic, but usually there is a full recovery.

Treatment begins with antibiotic therapy aimed at destroying fuzospirohet (antibiotics - penicillin, ampioks, kanamycin, lincomycin, etc.).The choice of antibiotic and dosage administered only by a physician!At the same time appointed anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drugs, vitamins.After anesthesia

oral cavity is treated with antiseptic solutions (the most effective 3% hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, metrogil, Trichopolum, dioxidine) or with antibiotics (penicillin, gentamicin, etc.).Necrotic ( "dead") tissue is removed surgically.To speed up the healing affecting skin appointed agents (solkoseril, metatsil, kalanchoe juice, aloe vera).Compulsory conducted dental health.

most frequent fungal infection of oral candidiasis is .Normally the disease pathogen (Candida fungi) is in the mouth, as a so-called saprophytic (normal) microflora.But at lower protective properties of the organism, with the development of dysbiosis mouth it becomes pathogen.

important prerequisite of the disease is a special condition in the oral cavity - moisture, temperature, reducing the acidity in the mouth (in poor hygienic conditions, the carbohydrate nature of the food, the violation of rules for use of removable prostheses, the presence of cavities, lichen planus, tuberculosis and others.).

Often candidiasis occurs in infants weakened by infectious diseases, premature.In older children - with rickets, diathesis, hypovitaminosis .

More thrush known as "thrush", associated with the characteristic symptoms of the disease.On the oral mucosa appear white spots or white "cheesy" plaque, the removal of which is the hearth reddened, edematous mucosa.If plaque is not removed, then there is layering its layers on top of each other, a dense film, under which even erosion can be formed.

In addition to these symptoms are observed dryness and burning in the mouth, pain when eating, the appearance of painful cracks at the corners of his mouth.

Treatment of fungal stomatitis begin with the appointment of antifungal drugs (nystatin, Levorinum, clotrimazole, fluconazole, and others.).The cavity of the mouth and dentures treated by weak alkaline solutions (2-4% solution of borax, soda), aniline dyes, iodine preparations (Lugol's solution, "Joks") and, necessarily, antifungal ointment (1% nistatinovaya, 5% levorinovaya, "miconazole-gel "and others.).

The diet restricted carbohydrates (sweet, flour, starchy food).

is important to identify and cure (together with the endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, internist, and other specialists), the cause of candidiasis, the cause of the imbalance in the oral cavity.Candidiasis in young adults who consider themselves healthy, is "an indicator" disease in HIV-infected patients and patients with diabetes mellitus.

Allergic stomatitis.

Today, installed, every third inhabitant of the planet in one way or another allergic.Besides food allergies, dust, pollen and other irritants, there are many drugs, including allergy, which may in varying degrees, to cause allergic reactions, including in the oral cavity.

most common form of allergic contact stomatitis is stomatitis.It can be in contact with any medical drugs or dentures.Patients complain of a burning sensation, dry mouth, pain when eating.The mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue swollen, it can be seen tooth prints.Against this background, may appear different spot size, erosion, ulcer.Characteristically, inflammatory lesions occur only in prosthetic bed area or in the area of ​​contact with the allergen.

the treatment of contact stomatitis is important to identify and eliminate the allergen (termination of use of the prosthesis, replacement of the filling material, the abolition of the suspect drug).Inside appointed antihistamines (allergy) preparations (suprastin, tavegil, klarotadin), they can also be assigned in the form of applications to the affected areas of the mucous.In the presence of erosions appointed affecting skin products (oil solution of vitamin A).

allergic stomatitis often manifest as chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis.In this disease at one and the same place there are single sprue, appearing and disappearing again for many years.