Arthritis ( inflammation of joints ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Musculoskeletal System.

Arthritis - disease of the joints, accompanied by their inflammation.

inflammatory process occurs primarily in synovial (internal) membranes (bag) joint.This state is called synovitis and is accompanied by accumulation in the synovial cavity effusion - synovial fluid.Inflammatory exudate creates conditions for further stasis venous and lymphatic drainage in the area of ​​the joint, resulting in progression of arthritis.The process involves other components of the joint structure - head (epiphysis) of bone, cartilage, the tissue of the joint capsule, ligaments, tendons, and other periarticular myagkotkanevye components.Arthritis is a joint in the medical literature as monoartrit, some (many) of the joints - arthritis.

Causes of arthritis

The causes of arthritis are varied.This joint infections, and trauma (such as sharp - strikes, car accident, fall on the joint, and chronic injury-overload), allergies and autoimmune processes to the formation of antibodies that destroy the body's own tissues -

joint components.

There are many different diseases involving arthritis - such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriatic arthritis, arthritis with Reiter's syndrome.Many autoimmune processes with damage of connective tissue - vasculitis, syphilis, gonorrhea, rheumatism, and other systemic diseases may be accompanied by arthritis.

Arthritis symptoms and diagnosis of arthritis

symptoms of arthritis: the affected joint pain, it is observed stiffness, local increase in soft tissue temperature, hyperemia (redness), swelling (edema), there is effusion of synovial fluid or a specific fluid in the joint cavity with increasingits size, by swelling.Possible related arthritis clinical manifestations of intoxication and autoimmune processes (fever, general weakness).The analysis of the observed increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cell count may be present c-reactive protein.

Unfortunately, the same type of symptom for different etiology (cause) of the disease makes it difficult to accurate and timely diagnosis.For the specialist doctor and the patient in the diagnosis of a major role have other associated symptoms arthritis - a condition of the skin (rashes, etc.), heart, kidney, respiratory tract.Paroxysmal for arthritis is especially true for rheumatism, for Reiter's syndrome is characterized by the development of arthritis after acute, but quickly passing infectious urethritis (inflammation of the urethra, the bladder may - with sharp pain when urinating), enterocolitis (inflammation of the bowel with diarrhea and flatulence).For gout revealing manifestation of the disease after drinking alcohol.For rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by symmetrical loss of peripheral joint small hands and feet systems for ankylosing spondylitis or Reiter's syndrome - pain, limited mobility, a sense of stiffness in the spine.The defeat of the 1st toe joint is most characteristic of gout.In psoriatic arthritis often affects the terminal interphalangeal joints, accompanied by severe edema (finger like a sausage) and purple-bluish complexion.In systemic lupus erythematosus arthritis combined with redness in the form of a butterfly on her face, and kidney failure.

In diagnostics, there are special laboratory tests - methods of research aimed at identifying the specific immune complexes, antigens of bacteria and other specific components of the system destruction.Carrying out arthroscopy, analysis of synovial effusion, a biopsy of the joint tissues.

Arthritis Treatment

mainstay of treatment for arthritis - this treatment is its cause disease .For local treatment of joints and arthrology rheumatologists use physiotherapy, intra-articular injection of medical, general non-specific anti-inflammatory treatment.

good additional features in the treatment of arthritis offers reflexology, Su-Jok method and remission of the disease - a method of osteopathy.Osteopathy can restore periarticular blood flow, reduces fibrotization muscles, ligaments, preventing clumping periarticular bags.If you have a related mechanical joint damage (chronic micro-traumas at displacement of the sacrum, lumbar spine, hip joints - arthritis of the knee joint (gonartrit) and arthritis of the foot joints, lesions of the cervical spine, collarbone, ribs and shoulder blades in arthritis of the shoulder or the elbow) doctor-osteopat can significantly reduce pain and abnormal symptoms, having harmonization of muscle and skeletal stress and relationships in the adjacent joints.

Quite often struggle with arthritis and other joint diseases (especially at the initial stage) are assigned chondroprotectors.One of the most effective chondroprotectors - glucosamine.It is a part of almost all drugs for joint pain.However, not all forms of glucosamine same effect.For example, the glucosamine hydrochloride - the substance is of unproven efficacy, and is available mainly in the form of dietary supplements.While stable crystalline glucosamine sulphate - the only form of glucosamine, has successfully passed clinical trials.For example, on the basis of a stable form of glucosamine is designed Dona drug that not only relieves symptoms, but also slows down the progression of the disease, which significantly improves the patient's quality of life and postpone the need for joint replacement.

Weather forecast for the arthritis is ambiguous, depending on the state of the patient's immune system, the characteristics of the primary disease, the severity of the local joint changes.Perhaps a full recovery with the restoration of joint function and joint destruction (deforming arthritis, arthrosis, joint destruction) followed ankilozirovaniya (closure, joint immobility).In these situations, it can be shown joint surgery - arthroplasty.After replacement in most cases necessary to restore function of the soft tissues surrounding the joint - along with other functional treatments, osteopathy can quickly remove postoperative pain, normalize muscle tone surrounding the joint, to increase mobility in the adjacent joints.

arthritis Stem cell therapy

In the future it will be possible to treat arthritis without complicated operations, the use of magnetic beads and stem cells is sufficient, according to British scientists.The new method tested on mice.

Alicia El Haj (Alicia El Haj) of Kiile University (UK) has developed together with colleagues magnetic beads is less than two micrometers in diameter, which bind to receptors on the human mesenchymal stem cells.These cells, which are isolated from adipose tissue or bone marrow are able to suppress the immune response and give rise to different types of connective tissue and cartilage fat, muscle and bone.When the magnetic field is turned on beads start moving, deforming the surface of the cells and causing them to open the pores.As a result of the influx of potassium ions triggers a cascade of reactions inside the cell, which determine what it will become.
scientists implanted human mesenchymal stem cells coated magnetic beads in the back of mice and used a magnetic field to turn the cells into cartilage tissue, said El Hadj meeting on stem cells at Oxford.Now her group is planning to treat the knee joint in goats using magnetic stem cells, which have been developed together with the company Magnecell.They hope that the magnetic field will deliver stem cells to the joints and facilitate their transformation into cartilage.
beads, which the Office for sanitary inspection by the Food and Drug Administration has already approved the US for use as an amplifier medical images quickly disintegrate and are excreted.By attaching magnetic beads to other receptors, stem cells can grow other tissues, says El Haj.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis affects people of all ages, but most of those who are over 30. Among women, approximately 5 times more suffering from rheumatoid arthritis than men.In general, according to different researchers, this disease affects 1 - 2% of the population.

Causes of rheumatoid arthritis

Causes of rheumatoid arthritis are not fully understood.However, it is obvious that there is a genetic predisposition to the disease.That is, members of the family of the patient with rheumatoid arthritis have a slightly larger chance they get sick than the other inhabitants of the area (country or city).But this statement should not sound like a death sentence.We are talking only about the theoretical probability.Become ill as a man at the confluence of several adverse circumstances.

Apparently, contribute to the development of rheumatoid arthritis may be some latent infection.The confirmation is the fact that about half the cases the disease is preceded by acute respiratory infections (ARI), influenza, sore throat or exacerbation of chronic infectious diseases.In addition, quite often rheumatoid arthritis develops as a continuation of the reactive or infective arthritis.

Another significant factor provoking the disease - severe emotional stress.About a third of my patients the disease started after the heavy blows of fate: divorce, loss of loved ones, etc. And 10% of patients the disease manifested itself after a strong supercooling...

symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

Clinic "classical" rheumatoid arthritis symptoms is difficult to confuse with other joint diseases.In most cases, the disease occurs in the beginning of inflammation and swelling of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the index and middle fingers (we are talking about the joints, which are at the base of the fingers, that is, in the area of ​​protruding bones clenched fist).This inflammation of the metacarpophalangeal joints most commonly associated with inflammation and swelling of the wrist joints.Tellingly, the inflammation of the joints symmetrically as rheumatism - that is, if joints are struck on the right hand, then almost certainly affects the same joints on his left hand.But unlike rheumatism rheumatoid arthritis inflammation resistant, swelling and pain in these joints to keep them from several months to several years.

Along with inflammation of the joints of the upper extremities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is almost always a defeat of small joints of the feet.Inflamed joints, which are at the base of the fingers, which is manifested by pain when you press a "padded" toes.It is symptomatic that the legs become inflamed joints symmetrically (on the right and left limb), as well as on the hands.

Joint pain often worse in the second half of the night, in the morning.Around noon the pain is very intense;patients compared them with a toothache.However, the afternoon of pain become weaker, and they are generally negligible in the evening.Relief lasts until the middle of the night, but around 3 - 4 hours, attacks of pain in the joints renewed.

addition to intense pain for rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by a symptom of "morning stiffness".Patients describe morning stiffness as a feeling "numb body and joints" or feeling tight gloves on his hands and tight corset on the body. "

When flaccid, soft during rheumatoid arthritis morning stiffness disappears usually within half an hour after the patient got up fromBut the bed in severe disease is an unpleasant sensation may persist for up to one hour of the day and even longer

often these symptoms are accompanied by a feeling of weakness in patients, worsening of sleep and appetite, moderately elevated temperatures (up to 37.2 - 38).., chills. often patients lose weight, sometimes significantly

as the disease in its advanced stage in the pathological process involved the all-new joints Quite often inflamed knees, elbows, ankles and shoulder joints When this disease is undulating in nature:... the periods of deterioration of health amongthe patient followed by periods of spontaneous improvement.

After stress, colds or hypothermia the patient's condition may deteriorate considerably again.On top of that in due course to the joint damage are added various complications in the internal organs.Often there rheumatoid lung, heart, liver, kidneys, blood vessels and intestines.Such complications are not only able to seriously worsen the already not the ideal condition of the patient, but may even pose a threat to his life.

That is why it is important to undertake the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as early as possible to interrupt the progression of the disease in an early stage, without bringing the matter to the complications and without waiting for irreversible effects.

Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Principles of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

cure rheumatoid arthritis is not easy.In fact, to achieve complete cure of the disease fails in very rare cases, because most used drugs nowadays has only a symptomatic effect.Such formulations eliminate disease symptoms (pain, inflammation of the joints), but do not affect its causes.

For example, as a means of first aid for joint pain using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): FLEX, diclofenac, indomethacin, piroxicam, Brufen and other NSAIDs can make life easier for the patient, but to cure rheumatoid arthritis with the help of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is not possible..

NSAIDs act exactly in the period of their application, without the express view to the future.And as in rheumatoid arthritis have to take medication for a long time, "classic" NSAIDs can cause various side effects.Most often, they have a negative impact on the work of the stomach, causing, in some cases the development of gastritis or peptic ulcer.

Fortunately, the development of pharmacology is not standing still, and scientists a new group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs has been developed - there were so-called "selective" anti-inflammatory agents.Selective NSAIDs (drug movalis) are much milder "classic", and much less likely to produce any complications.Movalis rheumatoid arthritis in most cases can be used for a long time, for several months, sometimes even years, with minimal risk of side effects.

Besides NSAIDs, to provide rapid relief of many physicians, especially overseas, do not hesitate to prescribe anti-inflammatory corticosteroids (prednisolone, metilpred, hydrocortisone, and so on. D.) Suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.

use of such hormones are almost always contributes to a clear improvement in the patient's condition.Immediately reduces joint pain, morning stiffness disappeared, weakness and chills.Of course, for such a quick result the patient is willing to pay any money, and not small - that is the main stimulus of Western medicine.

Unfortunately, patients receiving corticosteroid hormones are often unaware that they are getting powerful enough to hit all the body's systems.Because corticosteroids - hormones of stress.And as long as the patient is taking these hormones, he is well.But it is necessary to cancel or reduce their dose, disease nakinetsya person literally doubled or trebled force.Besides, such a great number of contraindications hormones, and in addition, they reduce immunity.

So before you assign a patient hormone therapy, the physician should weigh three times, then there will be more of such treatment - harm or benefit.

You may ask me: if anti-hormonal agents and relieve pain and inflammation only in the period of their use, act the "right now", what then should try to cure the patient?

main treatment for rheumatoid arthritis are the so-called basic drugs.They affect the soil, generating disease, its "basis".Apply these tools with an eye to the future, based on their ability to affect the cause of the disease and interrupt its development.