Flatfoot - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Flatfoot - the most common deformity of feet.Immediately stop the person carries a support function, movement and amortization due to the complex structure.Under normal physiological structure of the stack has two sets - a cross (between the bases of the fingers) and longitudinal (along the inner edge of the foot).The arches are the function of the shock absorbers and soften shaking when walking.Bone and ligaments of the foot works well when the load, which falls on the foot, fully balanced.With the weakening of the muscles and ligaments that connect the bones of the foot 26, there is sagging and flattening of the arches leading to the loss of spring function.When flat feet, this function switches on the spine, knee, ankle and hip.These joints are not designed to perform this function and cope with it poorly, thus easily damaged.
Causes of flat feet.
There are many conditions that lead to flat feet, here are some of them.
- Congenital flat foot is a rare pathology is found in 11.5% of the total numberof foot diseases.The reason may be different pathology fetal development, due to ionizing radiation, harmful habits of the mother.
- Children with rickets develops rachitic stop, resulting in decreased production of vitamin D reduced bone strength during mechanical stress weakens the musculo-ligamentous apparatus.
- Paralytic flat develops after suffering polio, and the degree of flatfoot is directly dependent on the degree of severity of paralysis.
- Traumatic flat developing bone fractures of the foot or at the wrong accrete fracture.
- Static flat - one of the most common types of flatfoot.The main reasons for it is the reduction of muscle tone, excessive fatigue due to the long stay on his feet.
symptoms of flat feet.
Usually a person who spends a lot of time on their feet, not to notice the development of flat feet, and the appearance of pain and discomfort in the legs and feet connects with fatigue.There are some basic features which you can suspect the development of this terrible disease in itself.
• Legs at the end of the working day begin to swell, there are traces of socks, you may receive a feeling of heaviness and cramps, which can be long and take place after the massage.
• You begin to notice that the length of the working day remains the same, and the legs get tired much faster.
• Shoes starts to wear out much faster than before, mostly on the inside.
• Periodically, a feeling that the foot has increased in length, and because of this we have to buy shoes one size larger.
There are several stages of deformity, the passage which leads to a complete clinical flatfoot.There are prodromal stage, the stage of intermittent flatfoot, stage of development of flat feet, feet ploskovalgusnoy stage and contracture flat.
first stage flatfoot is pain in the foot and calf muscle after prolonged stress on the foot, the statistical nature, there is a pronounced feeling of fatigue.
In stage interleaving flatfoot is characterized by increased pain at the end of the day, the pain is caused by overvoltage ligamentous apparatus of the foot that supports the optimal position of the foot.Fatigue is not seldom appears in the middle of the day, and people with flat feet have to change the starting activity or rest more often.The longitudinal arch of the foot to the end of the day visually flattens, but after a rest, especially in the morning, the arch height is restored.
Stage of development flat foot occurs when the result of a further leg muscles fatigue and foot longitudinal arch of the foot is unable to recover after a rest.The patient rapidly develops fatigue due to overwork the muscles.The pain becomes constant and aching due to hyperextension of the ligamentous apparatus.It decreases the height of the longitudinal arch of the foot by lengthening and widening its longitudinal portion.Changes gait, limited range of motion in the foot joint.In this stage of the disease is marked three degrees.
Diagnostic event at the flat.
Besides clinical signs, there are several ways that you can determine the severity of the disease.These include plantography analysis line Feis, podometrics and clinical and radiological diagnostic methods.
plantography - method pozvolyayuschiyopredelenie severity flatfoot using fingerprints.Feet smeared with a solution of methylene sinёnogo, then make footprints on a blank sheet of paper, the opera on your feet evenly over the weight.
podometrics method for Friedland - this definition is the percentage ratio of the height of the foot and its length.
clinical method of measurement is to construct a triangle with a base equal to the distance from the head to the I metatarsal bone calcaneal tuber.The top of the triangle is at the top of the inner ankle, a leg comes up to the top of the heel angle, the other to the head I metatarsal bone.The normal height of the arch is 55 - 60 cm
X-ray method is based on the construction of the triangle to the lateral radiograph of the foot connecting the top of the calcaneal tuber with head I metatarsal bone and the apex of the triangle falls on the lower edge of the navicular bone, the apex angle should normally.equal to 120 - 130 degrees.
Determination of flat feet on the radiograph.
Flatfoot is one of those diseases that do not encourage young people to conscription (military service).II and III of this disease is an absolute contraindication for service in the armed forces.This is due to large power loads that can not tolerate people with flat feet.Otherwise, the pain may increase, and further, while maintaining a given load, move into one of the many complications.
Flat feet in children.
For newborns characterized by well-defined arch of the foot, but the foot is filled with children's fatty tissue, and during the inspection, it appears flat.With 3 years there is a significant strengthening and development of the ligaments, so that there is a significant increase in the height of the arch and foot begins to acquire the appearance of the foot of an adult.The older the child, the more pronounced the vaulted structure.Thus, the external flat of the child can not be taken as a true disease.
development of flat feet in children contribute to congenital disorders ligaments, muscle weakness, obesity, endocrine diseases, incorrectly matched shoes.Due to anatomical features, the definition of flat feet in children by the fingerprinting technique is not always informative and can give a false result.
Often children can not complain of pain or discomfort in the legs, so a periodic examination by a doctor podiatrist is an integral part of the annual health examinations.Treatment of flatfoot in children is reduced to rest, suspended by exercise, massage plantar parts and walking barefoot on uneven surfaces possible appointment of orthopedic insoles.
Treatment of flatfoot.
treat flat feet is difficult, and may not be through any period of time with full confidence that it is a disease of the past.Completely get rid of this disease is possible only in childhood, as ligaments and skeletal system is quite malleable.In adult patients, the disease can only be retarded by means of special rehabilitation measures.
Parents need to remember - "the sooner the symptoms of flat feet detected, the more favorable the conditions for stopping the progression."
Treatment should be combined and involve the removal of pain, strengthening the ligament apparatus and the muscles of the foot.For pain relief ointment should be used painkillers with a relaxing effect and physiotherapy.
treatment should begin with exercises that can be performed on a daily basis at home.Medical type of gymnastics is used to achieve the correction of the arch, strengthens muscles, ligaments trains, generates the right type of gait.There are many exercises that are selected individually, depending on the age, complaints, foot position and its shape.All the exercises and their intensity you select orthopedic surgeon.
Treatment in plane deformation stage of the foot should be strictly differentiated, along with performing physical therapy and massage need to wear insoles insoles to help relieve painful areas and correct deficiencies in the initial stage of the disease and orthopedic shoes at the II degree, and at the III degree oftenoperative treatment.
In congenital deformities of feet ploskovalgusnoy mild children spend massage of the foot and lower leg, exercise therapy.When a child begins to walk, you need to make orthopedic shoes for him.With lack of effective treatment and treatment for late operative treatment.
great importance in the treatment of flatfoot is choose the right shoes.Beautiful high-heeled shoes, of course, any fashionista will decorate the legs, but do not wear them all the time.Otherwise, after a short time you will have to only wear orthopedic shoes.When choosing footwear, pay particular attention to the flexibility and comfort of the sole, heel height (no more than 3-4 cm), it is better to avoid the shoes on the platform and overly broad or narrow.
Complications of flatfoot.
• toed walking, curvature of the spine, unnatural posture.
• Pain in the knees, hips, back and feet.
• Degenerative changes of leg muscles and back.
• The disease itself feet (deformation, bending toes, corns, spurs, neuritis)
• Diseases of the spine (herniated discs, low back pain), diseases of the hip and knee joints.
• Ingrown nails.
Prevention of flatfoot.
To exclude the development of flat feet, it is necessary to carry out preventive activities on a weekly basis.Priority is that you must do is to choose the right shoes, exclude wearing shoes with high heels, the optimum height of 3 - 4 cm. Periodically inspect your doctor orthopedist, at least once a year.People who have any problems with the feet this inspection should be carried out more frequently.It is also necessary to do gymnastics and do physical exercises for the feet.Foot bath and massage can help relax the muscles and relieve tension after a hard day.It is necessary to get rid of excess weight, because it contributes to an additional load on the spine and legs.
therapists Zhumagazy EN