Stones in the bladder and ureter - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Urolithiasis - a pathology that is characterized by the formation of stones in the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.This article will detail the ureteral stones and bladder stones.
Causes of stone formation in the urinary tract
To date, no one can say the exact cause, from which are formed stones in the ureters or bladder.Most scientists of the world adheres to the multifactorial theory, according to which, several factors affect the formation of stones.
Perhaps most important of all a large number of risk factors should be considered as an unhealthy diet, namely the water-salt regime.Many scientists and practical urologists believed that the stones in the bladder and ureters was formed by an excess amount of salt in the body.This does not necessarily have to excessive amounts of salt fell together with food or water.Impaired renal function, in which the body is derived from the lack of sodium, also contributes to a change in the normal composition of urine, which subsequently leads to the form
Inflammation of the urethra mucosa may also lead to the appearance of the stones.This is because the protein substances which are produced as a result of inflammation, may serve as a matrix in stone formation.At the same salt composition of urine can be completely normal.
some influence on the development of urolithiasis plays and man's place of residence.Multiple studies have shown that in the regions of tropical and subtropical climate zones people are much more likely to suffer from kidney stones disease, than, for example, in the northern regions.
Signs of stones in the bladder and the ureter and associated symptoms
clinical picture finding stones in the ureter quite specific.At the same time there is the so-called renal colic, which is characterized by an acute attack of pain in the lumbar region on the side of the affected kidney.This pain can be given in the crotch area of the external genitalia or the front of the thigh.In addition to renal colic characteristic positive symptom Pasternatskogo.It is characterized by the fact that even with a slight fist tapped in the kidney, the patient experiences pain or significant increase in the appearance of the latter.Furthermore
acute pain, with similar pathology changes often observed in urine, which are characterized by the presence of blood, salt, sand or small stones (sand).This should be considered in the differential diagnosis of urolithiasis with other pathology.
If the stone has fallen from the ureter into the bladder or formed directly in it, signs of the other. Symptoms of bladder stones less pronounced, but even for them it is possible to establish an absolute diagnosis.This would mark a slight amount of blood in the urine or sand, as well as periodic aching or sharp pain in the perineum, which intensified during intercourse or urination.If
bladder stone quietly moved in its cavity then at some point it may overlap the mouth of the urethra.Most often, it occurs during urination and shows interruption of the jet.
Different types of stones
If you find yourself in pain in the lumbar region or characteristic changes in urine sediment, then you should immediately consult a urologist, who can appoint additional research and to put a definitive diagnosis.
diagnosis of stones in the bladder and ureter
most simple, but at times, and the most effective in the stones of the bladder and ureter is a urinalysis.In this study, one can identify the exact amount of blood, salts and other pathological substances which may be present in urine in this pathology.The analysis is a screening, as it represents only the first step in the diagnosis of urolithiasis.
Twenty years ago, most informative and accurate in the diagnosis of urolithiasis considered excretory urography .This procedure is a diagnostic technique that consists in the intravenous administration of contrast medium followed by radiography of the abdominal organs.This study made it possible not only to see an X-ray-positive ureteral stones and bladder, but also to determine how well allocated or not allocated urine along the urethra.
excretory urography - a stone left ureter.1 - shadow stone;2 - stasis radiopaque substance in the enlarged ureter.
But depending on their origin, the stones can not be shown on the x-ray, it divides them into positive X-ray and X-ray negative.
Today, after the appearance of US , excretory urography somewhat receded into the background.This is due to the fact that ultrasound gives more accurate results and much faster.In addition, for ultrasound is not necessary to put an intravenous catheter, which in any case is considered to be threatened with invasion and infectious complications.And even if we consider the problem from a financial point of view, the ultrasound is much cheaper.
Another innovative technique in the diagnosis of urolithiasis considered CT , which gives more accurate results than the US.The essence of this study lies in the fact that is a series of body shots in different sections, which makes it possible to accurately estimate the size and position of the stones.The only thing standing in the way of the widespread introduction of computed tomography in the clinic, this cost of the procedure, which today is unbearable for people with average incomes.
Treatment of urolithiasis
treatment of stones in the ureter and bladder can be divided into the treatment of acute attacks and basic therapy.With regard to the acute attack, then to eliminate it very effectively used a variety of lytic mix based antispasmodics.These drugs, such as spazmalgon, baralgin, no-spa, papaverine can be purchased without a prescription at any pharmacy.They can be used in tablets, but experience shows that more effective is intravenous or intramuscular administration.These drugs, ureteral relaxing the wall, contribute to stone passage through the channel and its loss in the bladder.It must be remembered that the antispasmodics only eliminate an acute attack, but not eliminate the underlying cause - calculus.
If the stone is not receiving conservative treatment, to eliminate the acute attack of renal colic, you can use a special device - a cystoscope.This metal tube with optics inside is introduced into the urethra, and then examined mucous membrane of the urinary bladder and ureteral orifice.Thereafter, one of the holes in the ureter, which is a problem, the thin tube is introduced, called a stent.It promotes the outflow of urine from the kidney to the bladder, even in the situation where tight "sitting" in the ureter.Stone -
radical treatment only operation because it eliminates only the immediate cause of the pathology can be considered in urolithiasis.The incision during surgery depends on what area is stone.After removal of calculus, the operative field is drained to remove the urine, which can flow through the stitched wall bladder or ureter.
Feeding habits and lifestyle with stones in the ureter or bladder
Any form of urolithiasis patients are encouraged to table number 7, which is to limit the use of salt, fatty foods, alcohol, spices and other extractives.Patients who suffer from kidney stones disease, be protected from hypothermia and excessive physical activity, which can lead to inflammation of the urinary tract, irritation calculi.
rehabilitation after illness
All patients who underwent surgery, need bed rest for several days.In addition, they need daily dressing and care of the operating wound.
In the late period of patients with urolithiasis recommended spa treatment muds and mineral waters.Very good for this category of patients are like resorts such as Truskavets, Morshyn and fields.
Treatment of bladder stones folk remedies
cure people's means of urolithiasis can not be just as much as it is impossible to cure and classical medicine.Nevertheless, tincture horsetail showed himself very well as a means for sucking stones and is now actively used even by representatives of traditional medicine.However, in the use of this medication, you must be extremely careful that they do not fall on your teeth because the enamel can break down from this.
Complications of stones in the bladder and ureter
Complications of urolithiasis should be considered as impaired renal function, which often leads to inflammation and the formation of the latter in her abscess cavity.This condition often terminates operation, the volume of which can even be in the removal of the organ.
At bilateral renal colic when disrupted the flow of urine from both kidneys, blood poisoning can occur, which is called uremia.In this situation, the condition of patients worsens and close to critical.Uremia could face death for patients, so you should be very careful in the treatment of urolithiasis, in time to prevent such a state.
prevention of kidney stones and ureter
Since the etiology of urolithiasis multifactorial, the same should be prevention.First of all, you need to adjust your diet.To prevent kidney stones from it is necessary to exclude or limit fatty foods, meats, pickles, spices, and other foods that contain large amounts of fat and salt.
also need to remember the correct water regime.The normal, if a person drinks a day for about one and a half liters of fluid and approximately six to ten times goes to the toilet.If your personal performance beyond the standard, you need to consider in their own water-salt regime.
is also necessary to take into account the fact that people are sedentary occupations are much more likely to suffer from kidney stones than active employees.Thus, the sport can be another way to prevent kidney stones.
Urologist Elders VY