Megakalikoz ( megakalikoz ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Megakaliks - a congenital disorder of the kidneys, which is a diffuse enlargement of some cups.The literature also found the name of this disease as a megakalikoz.
As with any other congenital disorders, to name the exact causes of magakaliksa impossible.Just found out that in the development of this disease is a violation of the connective tissues of the kidney.As a result, there is thinning of the renal parenchyma and the expansion of the cups.
for the normal development of the fetal renal pelvis system of a woman to avoid any harmful effects during pregnancy.Among the most dangerous factors should be allocated teratogenic infections.These include toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, and others.To prevent contamination of the named infections during pregnancy women are almost monthly pass respective tests.It must be remembered that it is a dangerous infection during pregnancy.If a woman before conception had a blood or another antibody, it gives much less risk of a
Multiple studies are constantly carried out in different countries of the world, gives reason to believe that chemicals and drugs also has a great influence on the tab of organs and tissues of fetal development.Keep in mind that a pregnant woman is better to minimize contact with chemicals such as lacquers, paints and detergents.Among medicaments primarily be noted hormones and anti-TB drugs, which have a large number of contraindications and thus side effects.
With modest expansion kidney cups clinical symptoms may be absent.This is because the kidney capsule is in an intact state that is not subject to any influence.
In more complex situations where extended cup begin to put pressure on the kidney capsule, patients concerned about minor pain in the lumbar region.As a rule, they are permanent in nature, do not apply to other anatomical sites and do not depend on human power or physical stress.
Because kidney parenchyma thinning suffers primarily juxtaglomerular apparatus.This affects the amount of plasma renin activity, which progressively increased.This biological factor is a powerful vasopressor agent, increases the tone of the vascular wall, narrowing the artery.This effect on blood pressure levels, primarily diastolic.Patients begin to disturb the constant headaches, dizziness, weakness.If untreated, there may be a one-stage loss of consciousness.
different diagnostic methods are used to verify the diagnosis, conducting of which has a different efficiency.Probably the most common method of diagnosis should be considered as ultrasound, due to the low cost and the efficiency of the latter.In the US, you can note an increase in the kidneys in general, and individual changes of the cup.True, polycystic kidney abnormal formation can be easily confused with larger cups, so ultrasonography can not be considered a reliable method of diagnosis.
For final verification of the diagnosis is necessary to excretory urography, which is the X-ray examination of the pelvic organs following intravenous administration of contrast.If polycystic kidney can be visualized normal or reduced pelvis, at the time, as in a large number of notes megakalikse enlarged cups.The number of modified anatomical structures gives an indication of the stage of disease.
excretory urography: megakaliks
Often megakalikse develop secondary urolithiasis.When it on radiographic images may be visualized directly concrements, which usually are enlarged cups.
Computed tomography - one of the most accurate, although the most expensive, methods megakaliks confirm the diagnosis.
Computed tomography: megakaliks
In primary diagnosis of the disease, when there are no any clinical signs to patients applied observant, watchful waiting.They are encouraged to take periodic checkups at the urologist, during which it is necessary to carry out ultrasound and excretory urography.In principle, the further tactics of treatment depends on the dynamics of the development of the disease.If the speaker is marked stable, ie, not the pathology progresses, patients do not need the surgery.
most common indication before surgery at a secondary megakalikse urolithiasis.If it can run a variety of surgical interventions.To date, quite often used remote ultrasonic lithotripsy, which is splitting the stones using a special stationary machine.If unable to perform the operation specified metol can be performed classical abdominal surgery to remove the stones.
addition, surgery can be performed at megakalikse still festering and enlarged cups.This usually happens when there is a connection of a secondary infection and the lack of adequate treatment.In this situation, the aim of surgery is opening and drainage of an abscess or the removal of the entire organ.
With regard to conservative treatment, most often, it takes place during the secondary pyelonephritis, which is very well developed on the background megakaliksa.In this situation it is necessary to use antibiotics broad-spectrum, because not always know what kind of flora caused kidney inflammation.
Today the most commonly used combination of fluoroquinolones with vancomycin.The drugs used orally for approximately two weeks.When the resistance of microbes to the prescribed treatment, as a rule, used by more powerful drugs - meropenem.
Rehabilitation after illness
When assigning an active antibacterial treatment rehabilitation should focus primarily on the restoration of normal intestinal microflora.This may be used probiotic preparations for approximately a week.
Another aspect of rehabilitation of such patients should be considered as a spa treatment.As a rule, they are encouraged to visit the mineral spas, such as Morshyn, or Sak, home of the water treatment and prevention of urolithiasis.
Feeding habits and lifestyle
Patients with megakaliksom recommended dietary nutrition of the seventh on the table Pevzner.It implies a limitation in the use of sharp, salty, fried, pepper, acidic foods.In addition, it is not recommended to consume large amounts of salt and mineral water, which contributes to the development of urolithiasis.
Treatment folk remedies
Treatment folk remedies when this pathology is a casus.Without additional instrumental diagnostic methods detect abnormalities is simply impossible, which means that any treatment of folk remedies can be considered, if not deception, then a little trick on the part of traditional healers.
As already mentioned, the most common complication of this disease should be considered as urolithiasis.The reason for its development is a constant stagnation of urine in the kidney cavity of the cups, which gradually leads to the precipitation of salts and the formation of stones.Layering of this complication, patients complain of increased pain in the lower back and distribute them to the bottom of the external genitalia.In addition, patients may note some discomfort during urination.Normally, urine is clear, but it is possible her little blurred.
Follow the complication rate is megakaliksa pyelonephritis.Permanent stagnation of urine in the kidney is a good substrate for the development of secondary infection.Development of pyelonephritis manifested increased pain, deterioration of general condition, fever, and pale skin.If we make a general analysis of urine, you will see an increased number of white blood cells and bacteria in a given situation.
If during pyelonephritis is not assigned to an active anti-bacterial treatment, it can develop into abscess renal parenchyma.This clinical condition is called renal abscess.He needs immediate surgical intervention, during which performed an autopsy abscess and drainage cavity.
It is clear that the prevention of this disease, it is the prerogative of pregnant women.But not always possible to predict the causative factor, especially since the mutation, respectively, may occur suddenly, without any background reasons.Much more important than secondary prevention, which is to prevent complications megakaliksa.
First, secondary prevention based on proper nutrition and, accordingly, the water regime.Patients are not allowed to drink plenty of mineral water and salty foods, as this leads to an increased release of salts in the urine, which is a direct causative factor of urolithiasis.
With regard to prevention of pyelonephritis, it must be based, first and foremost, on the rehabilitation of chronic foci of infection.Patients should undergo a thorough study to identify chronic sinusitis, tonsillitis, cystitis and cholecystitis.As practice shows, these diseases are most often the cause of a secondary pyelonephritis.
Weather Forecast for life - favorable.As practice shows, even the most complicated forms of the disease, such as renal abscess have no deaths.
prognosis for recovery - relatively favorable.Only with a kidney transplant, you can finally get rid of this disease.
forecast for performance - favorable.
Ed.urologist, sexologist-andrologist Plotnikov AN