Acute and chronic cystitis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Cystitis - infectious and inflammatory diseases of the bladder, often affecting its mucosa.Due to the high prevalence and high rate of recurrence, as well as the difficulty of the treatment of chronic cystitis disease is a serious health problem.In addition, a pronounced sudden onset of disease, significant discomfort in the course of the disease is likely to disrupt the normal rhythm of life, a forced disability.Therefore, detection and treatment of cystitis should be timely.
Causes of cystitis
Infectious bladder disease are divided into complicated and uncomplicated.By uncomplicated cystitis include inflammation of the bladder in healthy non-pregnant women aged 16-65 years in the absence of other urinary tract diseases. complicated forms of cystitis occur and patients with pre-existing diseases of the urinary tract such as pyelonephritis, prostatitis, with severe systemic diseases such as diabetes, heart failure, as well as men and the elderly.This distinction forms of cystitis is necessary to c
main cause of cystitis is infection. Typically, uncomplicated cystitis is caused by a microorganism, in chronic inflammation is determined by a mixed flora.The main causative agent is Escherichia coli, a smaller percentage of cases, saprophytic Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter.Most of the agents - representatives of the normal microflora of the large intestine, rectum and vagina, so cystitis attributed to auto-infection.Currently, young people are increasingly common cystitis is caused by specific infections, sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia.Persons with reduced immunity is a common fungal cystitis, including due to infection of yeast fungi of the genus Candida.
a smaller percentage of cases found noninfectious cystitis .Hypothermia causes vasoconstriction bladder, malnutrition his wall, and as a consequence of weakening the protective properties and the development of inflammation.
chemical cystitis cause aggressive substances introduced by mistake into the bladder with a medical purpose or try to interrupt the pregnancy.
Allergic cystitis develops when ingested allergens.As a rule, are those allergens or other foods.Allergic cystitis is characterized by short duration of the course and a full cure on their own or under the effect of antihistamines.
Prolonged stress, nervous and mental excitement can cause functional dysuria with mucosal changes in the bladder.Such cystitis characterized by persistent current, tendency to relapse and the absence of bacteria in the urine sample.To develop
cystitis, a combination of at least two factors: the ingress of microorganisms into the bladder or corrosive materials and reducing the mucosal protective properties.Infection of the bladder may occur in the following ways.The predominant is the upward path of infection from the rectum, the vagina in women, urethral area in men.Down the path (for renal and ureteral infection) infection is less common.It is also possible hematogenous and lymphogenous infection, when bacteria get into the bladder mucosa through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.In rare cases, infection can track the path in lesions located close to the bladder body.Under conditions of reduced protective properties of the bladder wall is intense reproduction of microorganisms.In the process they have the ability to live out some substances which damage the mucous membrane, and is developing cystitis.
as precipitating factors of the disease distinguish defloration, sexually active, pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, menopause changes.The girls of preschool and early school age is 6 times more likely to suffer from cystitis compared with older age groups.This is due to the immaturity of the ovaries during this period and the absence in the blood of female sex hormones, which play an important role in the formation of the protective mechanisms of the mucous membrane of the vagina and lacunar area.This leads to the colonization of microorganisms and formation type cystitis ascending infection.During defloration (breaking of the hymen) through the lymphatic vessels damaged hymen infection into the bladder.Frequent and rough intercourse microtrauma promote vaginal mucosa and penetration of infection into the bloodstream and then into the bladder.But more often for prolonged intercourse due to massage the urethra infection ascending path into the bladder.In pregnancy, because of the growing pressure of the uterus is formed stagnation of urine, which contributes to the rapid proliferation of micro-organisms and predisposes to the development of inflammation.The menopause in the absence of female hormones that contribute to the formation of local immunity of the mucous membrane of the vagina and the bladder, and often develop cystitis.
In men, the primary cystitis occurs only rarely, usually with foreign body bladder or after urological procedures.In most cases, cystitis in men secondary to any disease of the urinary system.
symptoms of cystitis
for acute cystitis is characterized by rapid onset of the disease.Often unable to communicate with inflammation predisposing factors, such as hypothermia, prior to sexual intercourse.Patients complain of frequent urination, constant urge to urinate, sudden urge to urinate (urinary incontinence).Often it is necessary to make an effort to begin urination.During urination arise pain and burning sensation in the urethra after urination cramps in the abdomen.Urine leaves the small portions, the urge to urinate does not stop, day or night.In young children, because of the intense pain may occur acute urinary retention.
At much the inflammatory process may be a manifestation of general poisoning of the body: an increase in body temperature to 38-40 degrees, general weakness, sweating, dry mouth, thirst.Typically, this indicates the spread of infection to the development of pyelonephritis (kidney infection tissue and renal pelvis).
When recurrent cystitis form exacerbation followed by periods of complete absence of symptoms of inflammation.However, even minimal exposure to trigger factors may again cause the disease development.
Chronic cystitis is characterized as mild to severe urinary disorders, a slight discomfort or sharp pain in the abdomen, which are of a permanent nature and negligible change in the course of treatment.Such manifestations of cystitis arise due to persistent changes in the bladder wall due to frequent previous microbial attacks.In chronic cystitis bacteria in urine are not detected.
When the above-mentioned complaints must be as soon as possible consult a physician or nephrologist.Self-medication or loss of time can cause the transition of acute cystitis is a chronic form of complications.
main sign of the presence of cystitis but external manifestations, is the detection of white blood cells and bacteria in the general analysis of urine.In the presence of bacterial urine culture is possible with the identification of organisms and to determine their susceptibility to antibiotics.It is also possible in the urine of a small number of red blood cells.In hemorrhagic cystitis urine becomes color "meat slops", a large number of red blood cells is determined by it.US informative only if significant expression process or in the chronic form of the disease.This reveals thickening of the bladder wall, its stratification, swelling.
Echogram in chronic cystitis.
in the lumen of the bladder appears slurry of exfoliated cells of the mucous membrane and microbial conglomerates.
One of the most common complications of cystitis is pyelonephritis.In this infectious process ascending path passes from the bladder into the renal pelvis ureters, thence to renal tissue.Of particular importance is the casting of infected urine into the renal pelvis with increasing pressure in the bladder as a result of inflammation.
Another serious complication is the transition of uncomplicated cystitis in the hemorrhagic form.When this inflammation is not only covers the mucosa, but also other layers of the bladder wall.Bacteria in the course of their livelihoods destroyed the wall of the bladder, bleeding occurs.Hemorrhagic cystitis is characterized by visible changes a property of the urine: it turns red because of blood impurities, there is an unpleasant smell.Bleeding from the bladder wall can become a serious problem for the patient and even require surgery.
Treatment of cystitis Treatment of cystitis
should be timely and comprehensive. Uncomplicated acute cystitis treated on an outpatient basis.The antimicrobial therapy (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin), depending on the intended pathogen is assigned.anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, nimesulide) are recommended for the treatment of inflammatory syndrome.
From the first hours of the disease for pain relief and to facilitate urination need to use painkillers (solpadein, candles with anestezin) and spazmalitikov (no-spa, papaverine).
To ensure adequate removal of infected urine and prevent stagnation is recommended to use a liquid in an amount of not less than two liters per day.In addition, it is necessary for 5-7 days to abstain from sexual intercourse.Also, in order to restore the protective properties of the bladder mucosa shows the use of immunostimulatory drugs.
Complicated cystitis , as a rule, should be treated in a hospital.This recognition is made of the disease, contributing to the emergence of cystitis, as well as its adequate treatment.In some cases, for example when deletion of a uterus in women and prostate in men adenoma, surgical treatment.
For the treatment of chronic forms of cystitis and as a preventive measure is permissible use of herbal medicines, a diuretic.Also, some plants (bearberry, field horsetail, knotweed, cranberries and cranberry fruit, celandine) possess bacteriostatic, analgesic and antispasmodic properties.In Russia, some patented medicinal herbal preparations, such as kanefron, tsiston that worked well in the complex treatment of cystitis.Exacerbations of chronic cystitis treated similarly to acute cystitis.
Prevention of cystitis
as prevention of cystitis or its aggravation at zronicheskoy form of the disease is recommended to regularly empty the bowel and bladder, to prevent constipation.Maintain an active lifestyle, move more, because it contributes to the elimination of stagnation in the abdominal cavity.You also need to observe good personal hygiene, especially the genitals.Women are very important in a timely manner to carry out sanitation of the vagina.In chronic cystitis cure is impossible without the identification and treatment of the primary cause.
physician therapist, nephrologist Sirotkin EV