Mastopatia - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Mastopatia - dishormonal a benign breast disease characterized by abnormal proliferative processes (growths) in the prostate tissue.
Causes of mastitis
mastitis affects women of reproductive age from 18 to 45 years old, breast peak incidence between the ages of 30-45 years.In terms of female physiology occurrence of mastitis is easily explained.Each month in the body of healthy women of reproductive age occur cyclical changes under the influence of hormones - estrogen and progesterone.These two hormones not only regulate the menstrual cycle is biphasic, but also have a direct effect on mammary tissue.
Normally, under the influence of estrogens, which are formed in the first phase of the menstrual cycle proliferative processes occurring in the mammary glands, ie cell proliferation.Progesterone, which is produced in the second phase of the menstrual cycle, limits the effect of estrogen slows down the process of proliferation.
Under the influence of adverse factors formed an imbalance of hormones -
Sometimes breast develops due to excess production of the pituitary hormone prolactin.The normal prolactin produced in large amounts during pregnancy and lactation for the formation of mother's milk.But it so happens that prolactin is secreted excessively and outside of pregnancy, which is the disease and contributes to the emergence of mastitis.
addition to hormonal disturbances as a possible factor that provokes the development of mastitis include:
- swelling and inflammation of the ovaries;
- thyroid disease and adrenal glands;
- liver disease;
- psychological problems, stress, depression, neurosis;
- irregular sexual life, lack of pregnancies and births to 30 years;
- frequent abortions;
- hereditary predisposition;
- breast injuries, including wearing close to the metal underwire brassiere, which leads to chest microtraumas;
- bad habits, smoking and alcohol;
- iodine deficiency in the body.
There are two types of mastopathy:
1. Nodal (or nodular) breast with single seal - knot in the gland.Nodal (or nodular) breast is 2 types - a fibroadenoma (benign tumor) or cysts (fluid collection);In this form of mastitis treatment is surgical.
2. Diffuse breast with multiple nodes in the breast.Depending on the structure of the nodes, diffuse disease of the breast can be:
- breast with a predominance of the fibrous component;
- with prevalence of breast glandular component;
- with prevalence of breast cystic component (when the iron show a lot of cysts);
- breast mixed form.
Symptoms of mastitis:
mastitis severity of symptoms depends on the type of mastitis, on the psychological characteristics of women and of concomitant disease of mastitis.The most common disease of the breast is expressed in the form of dull aching pain in the breast on the eve of menstruation ( "mastalgia" or "mammalgia").Characteristically engorgement and increased breast volume, breast swelling associated with connective tissue.These symptoms are most often concerned with mastopathy patients (about 90%), especially in diffuse form of mastitis, when the chest pain may be of an intolerable character.
Less with mastitis may be discharge from the nipple.Discharge may be white, transparent or greenish color.In exceptional cases, may cause spotting, which is alarming.
for the self at home in diffuse form of mastitis is possible to detect small nodules in chest compression;when a node is determined by the shape of the formation of a single chest.In 10% of cases of mastitis swollen lymph nodes in the underarm area, which also can be felt for the self.
mastitis many women confused with symptoms of PMS (premenstrual syndrome) and often these symptoms are seen as a given by nature.However, this is not the case.In the presence of the above symptoms or mastitis detection of an entity in the mammary gland is urgently needed internal consultation of the doctor - mammalogy!
diagnosis of mastitis
diagnosis of mastitis include:
- detailed survey and inspection of mammalogy .The doctor conducts superficial and deep palpation (feeling) of mammary glands in both standing and lying down, since some education in the chest may move when you change position.Inspect the nipple, check whether there is any abnormal discharge from the nipple.In addition to the inspection of the chest, mammolog palpates the lymph nodes in the armpit, in the approach and supraclavicular areas.Also conducted palpation of the thyroid gland to exclude its pathology;
- mammography - breast X-rays - is carried out on 7-10 day menstrulnogo cycle.The picture made in 2 projections - direct and oblique.Mammography allows you to determine the type and severity of mastitis changes in iron;
- breast ultrasound - a safe and easy method of diagnosis than mammography.Breast ultrasound allows you to clearly define the structure of education in the chest (cyst, fibroadenoma, etc).Ultrasound at podzrenii on mastopathy spend 5-10 days of the menstrual cycle for more informative;
- for suspected oncology biopsy shows (using a thin needle take a piece of tissue from the suspicious area for histological examination);
- hormonal studies - check the level of estrogen and progesterone, if necessary, examine the thyroid hormones and the adrenal glands;
- pelvic ultrasound .When vyyalenii ovarian pathology shows consulting gynecologist ;
- the detection of fibroadenomas - shows consultation mammalogy oncologist-.
- desirable liver examination and exclusion of its pathology.
Video for the diagnosis of breast diseases
Treatment of mastitis Treatment of mastitis
selected individually, depending on the nature and causes of mastitis.Treatment of mastitis can be conservative or surgical, but we should start with lifestyle changes and nutrition.
Drug treatment of mastitis
Conservative treatment is indicated in diffuse mastopathy and involves the use of hormonal and non-hormonal drugs.Treatment is initiated only after consultation with the oncologist, to eliminate the need for urgent surgery.
nonhormonal treatment of mastitis
Treatment of mastitis non-hormonal drugs are administered in combination with hormone therapy or separately.Medications help to quickly arrest the symptoms of mastitis in mild forms of the disease, and the subject of a healthy lifestyle is possible to achieve a complete cure.
For non-hormonal treatment of mastitis using:
- vitamin prescribe it for the long term.All patients with mastopathy shown vitamins A, B, C and E.
- iodine preparations (Jodomarin, Iodine-asset klamin) help to reduce tissue proliferation activity and regulate thyroid function.But before their appointment is absolutely necessary endocrinologist consultation to identify contraindications such as hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis.
- When mastitis caused by psychological problems, prescribed sedatives (tincture of Leonurus, valerian, etc.), psychotherapy.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as Diclofenac) for quick relief of pain symptoms, if any.
- Homeopathic medicines (Remens, Mastodinon, Cyclodynon).Their therapeutic effect is based on reducing the level of prolactin in the blood, which leads to the elimination of pathological processes in the mammary gland in hyperprolactinemia.Appointed by these drugs for a long time.
- Phytotherapy (used only as a supplement to the basic treatment)
- Enzyme preparations having decongestants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects vtorichnoanalgeziruyuschim.
Hormonal treatment of mastitis
Hormonal treatment is given to regulate cyclic changes in the system of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis.Thus, normal hormones, effectively acting on elements of the breast tissue.For this purpose, they can be used drugs:
- progestins (Duphaston, Utrozhestan, Norethisterone ... prescribed in the second phase of the menstrual cycle, Prozhestozhel externally for rubbing the chest);
- inhibitors of prolactin secretion (Parlodel) take with hyperprolactinemia diagnosed between 10 and 25 days of the menstrual cycle;
- estrogen-progestin oral kontratsevtivy (Jeanine, Marvelon) appoint women to 35 years for the scheme contraceptive in the absence of ovulation, and the luteal phase of the violation;
Much less mastitis when it becomes necessary to use drugs:
- antiestrogens (tamoxifen, FARESTON) taking in continuous operation for 3 months;
- androgens (methyltestosterone).This group of hormones is prescribed mammologists extremely rare and only women over 45 years because of unpleasant side effects.
At any age, hormonal treatment of any disease should be carried out only after a preliminary study of hormonal status. After 40 years, due to the presence of concomitant diseases, in many women, there are contraindications to hormone therapy.
Surgical treatment of mastitis
Surgical treatment is used in the nodal mastopathy, preferably at fibroadenomas, rarely in the presence of cysts.When small amounts of fibroadenoma (up to 2 cm) from the surgical treatment can also refrain - showing dynamic observation in mammalogy.
There are 2 types of surgery with mastitis - sectoral resection (together with the sector udaleniyut breast tumor) and enucleation (husking) tumor or cyst (remove only the tumor / cyst).
Surgical treatment of mastitis is applied on the strict condition:
- for suspected breast cancer on biopsy data (only in this case carried out sectoral resection);
- during rapid growth fibroadenomas (increase in tumor 2 times within 3 months);
- if the cyst identity - showing fluid removal by a puncture (puncture of education), but relapse nodular cysts demonstrated its husking.
operation over a nodal mastopathy is performed under general or local anesthesia and lasts approximately 30-40 minutes.The patient was discharged home the next day or the day of surgery.Postoperative sutures removed 7-10 days after surgery.
Treatment of mastitis folk remedies Treatment of mastitis
conducted by means of regulating the menstrual cycle and, if necessary, the activity of the thyroid gland - hormonal agents, vitamins and homeopathic preparations.
is a way of life during treatment for a speedy recovery of fundamental importance.
- desirable to limit the consumption of coffee, tea, cocoa and chocolate.The fact that these products contain metilksaptiny which may provoke mastitis progression of diffuse pain and amplify.
- should give up bad habits (smoking, alcohol), and lead a healthy life - move more, avoid stress, sleep at least eight hours per day;to include in the diet of fish, boiled meat and vegetable products.
- bra should wear the correct size and suitable shape - otherwise it can lead to chronic chest deformation or, conversely, to an overload of the ligamentous apparatus.
- In any form of mastopathy absolutely contraindicated heat treatment - saunas, baths, sun exposure, solarium.
Patients are encouraged increased consumption of plant foods.Enrichment of the diet with vegetables, fruits, seafood failure of large amounts of tea, coffee, cocoa and chocolate can be when mastitis and prevention of relapse.
When mastitis diffuse widely used means of traditional medicine in the form of various poultices for the relief of pain symptoms.For this purpose, is applied to the chest grated red beets, fresh pumpkin or warm rye bread in the form of compresses.
However, we must remember that mastopathy these funds can not be treated, the effect of anesthesia on them is only temporary and is often based on self-hypnosis.
Possible complications mastopathy:
- relapse after treatment of mastitis.As a rule, this is due to undetected hormonal disorders;
- breast cancer.The risk of degeneration into cancer is higher in patients with fibroadenoma.In diffuse mastitis is threatening complication unlikely.
prevention of mastitis:
- Breast self-examination - the main method of prevention of mastitis and breast cancer, aimed at early detection of changes in the breast, which means you can promptly see a doctor and do not run the disease.After menstruation approximately 5-7 day cycle, a woman is recommended both breast palpation in the supine position and standing.Palpation starts with underarm area toward the nipple.Next, examine the breast vertically from the top down-soft movements.Upon detection of suspicious entities - urgent medical attention.The sooner treatment is started, the easier it will be to prevent the development of mastitis and oncology;
- pregnancy and lactation, the rejection of abortion;
- regular sexual life;
- administration of drugs iodine in autumn and spring, the consumption of iodized salt (if not contraindicated by the thyroid gland);
- a healthy lifestyle.
FAQ obstetrician-gynecologist on breast:
1. I have chest pains.Is it better to do an ultrasound or mammography?
35-40 years preferably breast ultrasound if you already have 40 -Better make mammograms.
2. I take birth control pills.Constantly I feel pain in the right breast.Could this be because of the pills?
Yes, perhaps contraceptives are not suitable for you, but we can not exclude the formation of the mammary gland.Refer to a specialist.
3. I found a fibroadenoma during pregnancy.What treatment now or wait until delivery?
necessary to conduct dynamic monitoring (breast ultrasound).If fibroadenoma grow rapidly -So it must be removed prior to delivery.
4. I have big breasts, I do not wear a bra at home, wear it only when you exit.Could this provoke mastopathy?
Yes, it can.It creates a large load on the ligaments.
5. Does it hurt his chest when growing?
No, it most likely breast.
6. it necessary to treat fibroadenomas if nothing is bothering you?
7. I'm pregnant and my breast.Will I be able to breastfeed?
8. Can fibroadenoma occur again after removal?
Yes, but this happens rarely.
9. possible to treat the nodal mastopathy tablets, not to go to the surgery?
No, it is ineffective.Only if the cyst is small, then you can try homeopathic medicines.
10. I fibro-kimstoznaya breast has long been the treatment of cysts disappear, then appear again.I'm planning a pregnancy, whether it will complicate the breast?
pregnancy and subsequent breastfeeding is beneficial to the state and course of breast mastitis.Another thing that causes mastitis, such as hormonal imbalance, did not prevent getting pregnant.
11. Does breast of conceiving?
Directly breast itself has no effect on conception, but it can cause the same factors that contribute to infertility - a lack of progesterone, prolactin excess, and as a result - no ovulation or miscarriage.We need to identify these factors and to treat.Mastopatia only beacon.
obstetrician - gynecologist, Ph.D.Christina Frambos