Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Benign prostatic hyperplasia - a relatively new concept in medicine.Previously, a disease that manifested similar symptoms, called BPH.This pathology is a tumor tissue in the prostate, which gradually grows and closes the lumen of the urethra.Moreover, tumor growth has only benign, and on the human body affects only mediocre, and closing the urethral lumen not allowing urine flow away outwards.
Causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia
To date, none of urological school in the world is not ready to name the exact causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia.Except that you can only identify factors that contribute to this disease.Only it must be remembered that the presence of these agents does not mean that a particular person has to develop prostate disease.One such factor is the imbalance between male and female hormones in the blood of men.This factor is the only one that is under a least some evidence base.There are many theories that smoking, drinking, sexual violation, improper diet and other harmful f
symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia
The clinical picture is clearly defined three stages of BPH, which greatly simplifies the approach to the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
first stage , called compensatory, characterized by the fact that the body, through the mobilization of internal security forces actively fighting the disease and eliminate its symptoms.However, already at this stage can be replaced with minimal degradation during urination.They are manifested by the fact that at the beginning of urination jet sluggish and insufficient pressure.In addition, now there may be the first signs of nocturnal urination.It is manifested by the fact that man gets up to urinate once a night, but every day .That this is the first bell, we note that you want to immediately run to the urologist.Identifying and diagnosing prostate adenoma at this stage it is best to treat.
The second stage is characterized by the depletion of the protective functions of the body.At this stage, the patient begins to feel some discomfort after urination.He feels that the bladder is not completely emptied, and there remains a certain amount of urine.This leads to rapid urge to the next act.For this stage is characterized by an increase in the number of acts of urination per day, the lion's share of which falls on the night.Moreover, it gives a discomfort, the process can become painful, and in urine small amount of blood will be observed.
During third , decompensated, stage of benign prostatic hyperplasia is marked complete violation of the outflow of urine from the bladder.This situation not only leads to acute pain over the pubis, but also to the deterioration of the general condition of the body.Man gets tired quickly, it suffer from headaches, weight loss, loss of appetite, constipation occur, and the exhaled air from the lungs has a sharp smell of acetone.
Against this background, developing renal failure, in the case of inactivity kidney leads to coma and death inevitable.
diagnosis of BPH
first method of diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia is a poll.Only he is not held by the classical method, as well as a questionnaire.This methodology was developed by the International Association of Urology and is based on a subjective assessment of patients with symptoms thereof.Of course, such a system has a whole lot of shortcomings, because quite often the person is in an excited state, overestimates his problem, but in most cases the patient is given an adequate assessment of current events.
At the next stage the rectal digital examination, which makes it possible not only to distinguish an adenoma to cancer, but also to determine the stage of the first increase.It should be noted that often after such a procedure, a mechanical effect on the gland has a rather positive effect in patients noted improvement.
Digital rectal examination
Next thing goes in the laboratory hands.It will have to identify in human blood level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) , which is a marker of prostate disease.The level of this substance is measured in human blood and its performance depends not only on the presence of the disease, but also the last stage.
Another diagnostic method is contrast radiography bladder .This method is mediocre because it does not allow itself to see the iron, only to determine the stagnation of urine in the bladder or poor final pass along the urethra.Despite all the shortcomings of this method, until recently it was considered the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
One of the most modern and the most informative methods for the determination of prostate disease is ultrasound .But unlike conventional ultrasound, performed it in a sufficiently specific form - through the rectum.Special disposable sensor is smeared with gel, and through the rear opening of the digestive tract is directed to the approximate location of the prostate position.At the same moment on the screen appear the body image by which to judge the stage and nature of the changes in the parenchyma of the prostate gland.
treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia
To date, developed a huge number of ways to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia.last choice depends on the stage of the disease.All of them are divided into conservative, non-operational and operational.
Conservative treatment is used in the early stages of the disease, when there is urinary retention.It involves the use of blockers and inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase.The first group includes drugs such as doxazosin and tirazozin, and to the second - finasteride.They have several different mechanisms of action but lead to the same effect.After receiving their prostate muscle fibers relax, thus improving the flow of urine from the bladder.
In the later stages of the disease, when there is a significant delay in the urine, patients are encouraged to operation .Who has developed several types of surgical procedures, but they all have one goal - to remove modified and excess prostate tissue.Classical considered open prostatectomy , when access to the body by means of abdominal incision.This procedure is quite traumatic and its application to date is impractical.Much shorter rehabilitation period during the application transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) .It is implemented using a special instrument that is inserted into the urethra and destroys prostatic tissue.
Typically, surgery is a radical solution to the problem.Relapses, if possible, is extremely rare.
Feeding habits and lifestyle with benign prostatic hyperplasia
Despite the fact that the fact that smoking, drinking alcohol and fatty foods are not proven as one of the factors in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia, urologists recommend avoiding these nuances in the treatment of this disease.In addition, experts advise to normalize its motor mode, as it contributes to the outflow of urine from the bladder.
rehabilitation after illness
Rehabilitation after benign prostatic hyperplasia is only necessary for those patients who have undergone surgery.It is to use a while rubber urethral catheter.It is essential to operating the wound healed quickly.In addition, in the long term we recommend a visit to health centers and curative mud treatment.Also good effect gives physiotherapy exercise therapy, which stimulates the regeneration of damaged tissues.
Treatment folk remedies
Those who try to treat BPH folk remedies like never studied human anatomy.It is hard to believe that herbal medicines may have some effect on the already formed prostate tumor.In this case, the use of various herbs so poultices can only aggravate the process, as the patient for a long time will not seek skilled care.
complications of benign prostatic hyperplasia
If prostate tumor completely block the lumen of the urethra, it will lead to a complete stagnation of urine in the body.This situation may result in acute renal failure, which is manifested in the accumulation of abnormal blood exchange human products.These are the most pathological agents negatively affect the brain, leading to severe disorders of consciousness - a coma.From this situation there are two ways.The first man is still alive, but has some mental deficiency, while the second simply dies.In any case, the patient develops an adverse situation, which demonstrates the urgent need for treatment to the urologist is still at the initial stage of the disease.
prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia
difficult to identify clear actions that can prevent the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.But in order to at least reduce the risk of its development, it is necessary to maintain a regular sex life.On the growth of prostate tumors is influenced as excessive self-control and an excess of sexual acts.
Equally important is the urination, which is like ejaculation, too, should be a regular.Normal urination male adult per day - 6-7 times.Moreover, all these acts should take place while you are awake.If the urge to occur at night, it is already talking about the problems with the prostate.
Among other things, it is necessary not to forget about bad habits and improper diet, the effect of which though not formally proven, but quite often seen in practice.
Ed.urologist, sexologist-andrologist Plotnikov AN