Swelling During Pregnancy - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Edema, large or small, hands, feet, swelling other sites anyway accompany most of the pregnancies.A rare woman to bear and gave birth to a child does not face this problem.Edema - this pathological accumulation of fluid in the intercellular space of tissues and organs.This is manifested as a swelling in one place or another organism.By itself, the swelling can either does not manifest itself only or bring discomfort.However, this may be a sign of other terrible diseases.Edematous syndrome accompanies many diseases of different organs and systems of the body: inflammatory, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine.
During pregnancy edema associated with an increased permeability of the capillaries - the smallest vessels, which leads to propotevanie fluid from the bloodstream into the tissues.
Most often swollen fingers and toes, and ankles.Status heavier hot weather.It is easiest to notice swelling in the field of wearing rings on the fingers, where, after withdrawing them are circular grooves, continuing for
necessary to distinguish between physiological and pathological swelling during pregnancy.Clear criteria for the separation of these two concepts is not, the border is very shaky, and diagnostics in particular women find it difficult even for highly skilled professionals.Nevertheless: physiological edema , as a rule, are not pronounced, are in the nature pastosity and more localized in the hands and feet.They, in contrast to pathological do not lead to the development of complications and either go alone or accompanied by the pregnancy, without causing too much trouble a woman other than concern for the perfection of his appearance.
Abnormal swelling are part of or a symptom of the broader concept - preeclampsia.In this classic triad of symptoms in this disease is the development of edema, proteinuria (protein in the urine excretion, absent in norm), hypertension (high blood pressure above 140/90 mm Hg. Art.).The name comes from the Latin word - pregnancy, and captures the essence of the disease.That is a pathological condition caused by pregnancy itself and is not found outside of it.The causes of preeclampsia, despite the close attention of scientists and doctors for decades, is not fully understood and depend upon a variety of factors.A lot of research on this subject, but no consensus about the true reasons for its occurrence is not so far.Doubtless is only the fact that the disease is directly related to pregnancy.This state never occurs outside of pregnancy and when it ends, most often comes safe recovery.
clinically pathological swelling of pregnant women are classified by degrees, or stages, which are also submitted to a diagnosis.
Hidden edema are manifested increased weight gain, nocturia (frequent nighttime urination), a decrease of diuresis (urine output, normally not less than 30-40 ml per hour, depending on the amount of fluid intake).
1 degree - swollen feet and hands;
2 degree - swelling goes to the stomach;
3 degree - swelling goes face;
grade 4 - anasarca (generalized edema).
Edemas usually begin with a foot of feet, often with the ankles.With the progression of the disease swelling it extends from the bottom up.However, sometimes the first swollen hands, feet and then only rarely localized swelling of the face and hands.If swelling of the face, his features grubeyut especially noticeable swelling of the eyelids.Often swollen labia.In the morning puffiness are less visible.More precisely, we do not see them, the liquid does not disappear simply more evenly distributed throughout the body during the night when we are asleep.After all, we usually do it in a supine position.During the day, due to the fact that the more we are in an upright position, swelling, according to the laws of physics "drain" down, and are localized in the lower limbs, reminding yourself the pain and fatigue of feet, traces of shoes and socks.Possible accumulation of fluid in the cavities within the body (edema hidden).
Intensity edema syndrome often does not match the severity of the disease.Even in severe swelling of the pregnant woman can not complain, but the general condition remains satisfactory.Nevertheless, more than 90% of cases the disease goes into the next stage, there are phenomena of hypertension and proteinuria.
The risk of developing preeclampsia include:
• women whose previous pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia development;
• pregnant with concomitant diseases of the cardiovascular system (hypertension), diseases of the kidneys, liver, thyroid, diabetes, lipid disorders (obesity);
• young (under 18 years), pregnant women, nulliparous after 30 years;
• undergone in the first half of pregnancy morning sickness (vomiting of pregnancy, excessive salivation, etc.);
• pregnant with identified hidden edema;
• pregnant women with multiple pregnancy;
• pregnant women with occupational hazards;
• pregnant women with adverse social and living conditions.
edema Complications during pregnancy
themselves swelling, as mentioned above, can cause only a cosmetic concern, unlike edema accompanying preeclampsia.The most severe complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia are pre-eclampsia - a generalized seizure, which can end stop breathing, heart and lead to death.
preeclampsia, it is the state that precedes eclampsia is characterized by the emergence of the following symptoms:
• pain in the head;
• blurred vision;
• nausea and vomiting;
• pain in the liver and stomach;
• hearing loss;
• speech difficulties;
• fever, hot flashes, sweating;
• agitation or sleepiness;
• tearfulness, inappropriate behavior, motor excitation.
If any one of these symptoms occur in the normal course of pregnancy, without edema, proteinuria and hypertension - the likelihood of developing eclampsia is minimal, but if the symptoms of preeclampsia on the face - there is a threat of severe complications.
Eclampsia is the most serious stage of preeclampsia, characterized by the occurrence of generalized seizures or isolated (limited) character.Anyone who has ever seen an epileptic attack can about imagine how looks eclampsia.There are however other forms of eclampsia, including non-convulsive, when the clinic is limited to the state of the patient unconscious.The presence of the above signs of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia requires urgent care physician.
Preeclampsia can proceed in mild, or severe.An optional condition is the presence of the classic "triad" of symptoms.The onset may be limited to edema or hypertension, as well as two three or more symptoms in addition to the classic in various combinations.Most often, of course, it takes place in a disease of mild forms.Sometimes, however, severe forms may suddenly arise.This can occur for weeks, in rare cases, this will require hours and days.In the event of a severe form of preeclampsia is suffering not only the mother, but her unborn baby.The decision on prolongation of pregnancy is taken individually, based on maternal and fetal interests first while put in the first place.In life-threatening condition only effective measure is an emergency delivery, as no other treatment exists.
for pregnant women with edema
Pregnant with edema has received increased attention at the stage of conducting in the antenatal clinic.She systematically carried weight dynamics, control performance seredechno circulatory system (blood pressure), kidney function (proteinuria).Everything is aimed to prevent complications.preventive drug complexes consisting of fitosborov commonly prescribed.
In prophylactic complex is administered:
• sedatives (valerian roots infusion of 30 ml three times a day, Leonurus herb infusion of 30 ml 3-4 times a day), charges sedatives 1/2 tablespoon 3 timesday;
• improve kidney function ( "Kidney Tea", birch buds, leaves of bearberry, cowberry leaves, corn vimba extract, horsetail herb);
• normalize vascular tone (hawthorn flowers, fruit extract).
Prevention of edema during pregnancy
To prevent the development and progression of edema recommend sustainable management of work and rest, walks in the fresh air, of course, subject to weather conditions.Necessary correction power with the predominance of the protein component, rich in vitamins and trace elements, bounded in the content of salt, spices.The amount of fluid consumed must be sure to make a reservation with your doctor.At the same time it depends on the dynamics of edema, weight index, the clinical course of preeclampsia.Self increase or decrease consumption of juices, teas, and other beverages can lead to deterioration.It should however be noted that strict control of both fluid intake and urine output is required only for pathological sufficiently pronounced edema.
important point is the correct choice of clothing.It should be breathable, that is composed primarily of natural fabrics.Not allowed collars, belts, cuffs, erasers treacherously astringent your body and makes you and your baby to suffer from lack of oxygen for the sake of dubious beauty.lower extremity edema annoy increased fatigue legs.Shoes should not be bought "back to back" with the hope that "the leather will stretch."Pregnancy is not the time for experiments.Welcomed orthopedic footwear, insoles, arch supports.Often, swelling of the lower limbs helps frequent rest, during which the feet must be kept in a raised position.At the same time pleasant and useful to massage the feet, made the future father.
treatment of edema during pregnancy
should be noted that from the perspective of evidence-based medicine was significantly effective prevention and treatment measures, such as edema, preeclampsia and in general, to date, does not exist in the world.Therefore, any doctor who is faced with this problem, prescribe treatment based on the specific situation, based on their medical experience and numerous recommendations.It is critical of all methods of treatment of edema and preeclampsia, especially on the Internet, especially if they guarantee 100% recovery.Never take any, even the most harmless, in your opinion, medications, including herbal medicine and folk remedies without consulting their primary care doctor.Also, I think a mistake to consult "on the side", several specialists who will undoubtedly run counter to each other.
prepare for pregnancy is necessary to advance, advance to choose a competent professional who is right for you, who can answer all your questions, listen, and suffer you will help to remove the fear of pregnancy and childbirth.Based on the relationship of trust between doctor and patient have a better chance of the baby will be born strong and is healthy.
Obstetrician-gynecologist Nikulichev DV