Radiography - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Modern medicine can not be imagined without such an important area as the X-ray diagnostics.Currently, a diagnostic imaging include X-ray method (X-ray, X-ray, fluoroscopy, linear tomography, computed tomography), radionuclide study method, an ultrasonic method of study, magnetic resonance imaging technique, thermography, and interventional radiology.The following will focus on x-ray.
Radiography - X-ray method of investigation, in which the X-ray image of the object is obtained on a solid support.If for decades the image obtained using X-rays, it was only on special X-ray films (were analog), at the present time there was also a widely used digital.These digital techniques have several advantages over analog and the main ones are the reduction of radiation exposure to the patient and the ability to transmit, display, edit and archive images with the use of modern computer technology.Consider now the standard procedure of radiographic studies.
first phase of the preparatory.It includes radiologist acq
The patient undresses, it is important that in the study area there was nothing: no clothes, no jewelry, and the like.
second stage - laying the patient, that is, the correct location of the study, it is necessary to ensure that the picture the desired area has been recorded completely.If the styling was done wrong, and, accordingly, the image description is wrong and something you can not see.Usually, when a doctor sees that the incorrect installation, it asks to make a copy.Generally there are special atlases of the most pilings, which makes life easier for X-ray technicians, which says how to put a patient, the angle at which direct radiation and the like.Usually do research in two mutually perpendicular projections (frontal and lateral projection) are particularly appropriate for fractures to assess where the displaced fragments, there are also special, such as the temporal bone.
After laying protect from light areas of the body (especially the sexual organs) are not the object of study.For this purpose prosvintsovannye aprons plate which is put on the patient, or close them.These protectors must have a mark indicating their protection equivalent.The third stage - just shooting itself, during which the patient serves the team, for example, take a deep breath and not to breathe, and electric current is applied to the X-ray tube.
And finally, the final stage, during which takes place when the machine is not digital, photochemical image processing (film development, fixing, drying), evaluation of the quality of the image, marking (name, surname, date of birth, photograph number) anddescription radiologist physician, if the unit is digital, the computer image processing (brightness, contrast, etc.) and a description of the doctor.
Then the doctor issues a report and pictures of the patient or investing in medical history.
perform X-ray of the purpose of detection and prevention of various diseases, the main purpose of its help physicians of different specialties to diagnose correctly and quickly.Make X-rays can be very many organs, but most often it is used in the following:
1) Traumatology and Orthopaedics, is pictures of bones and joints (starting from the head and ending with the feet), where you can see the features of various bone fractures, dislocation of the joints,flatfoot, benign and malignant bone tumors, specific and nonspecific inflammatory bone and joint changes (tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, etc.), degenerative changes of the joints (arthritis, etc.), disorders of bone development (different dysplasia and others.);
2), pulmonology, lung pictures where you can see different shades, which normally should not be, and the characterization of the shadow (shape, size, location, structure, etc.) And clinical diagnosis is correct, it may be anomalies andmalformations of lung development (aplasia - the lack of light, and many others.), degenerative-dystrophic changes (acquired emphysema), traumatic injuries of the lungs and bronchi, foreign bronchi body and lungs, pneumonia of different origin, destructive lung lesions (abscesses, gangrene), pleurisy,benign and malignant tumors, metastatic lung disease, fungal and parasitic lung disease and, of course, tuberculosis, which in our country in recent years has become very, very much, very well detected on plain chest radiograph;
3) Neurology and Neurosurgery - it photographs of the spine and skull, where it is possible to identify the traumatic injury, to assess their character, as a variety of diseases of these organs, for example, degenerative-dystrophic changes (osteochondrosis, herniated discs, spondylosis), benign and malignant tumorsanomalies and malformations (Kimerli anomaly - calcification of the membrane between the first vertebra and the occipital bone, frequent);
4) Otolaryngology - pictures of the sinuses, primarily detected inflammatory falling ill (sinusitis - inflammation of the maxillary sinus, frontal sinusitis - inflammation of the frontal sinuses), then the curvature of the nasal septum, various congenital malformations (absence of sinus cysts) and naturally traumatic injuries -fractures of the nasal bones;
5) cardiology, however, with the advent of more modern methods of research, such as ultrasonic diagnosis and magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray is used less and less, but not all the corners of our country reached progress ... in the photographs revealed congenital and acquired defects(valve failure, stenosis holes), aneurysm of the heart and aorta, pericarditis (inflammation of the heart bag), tumors and cysts of the pericardium;
6) urology, to review images revealed renal ptosis (ptosis), you can also identify stones in the kidneys and urinary tract, and using contrast agents (intravenous substance in the pictures it holds X-rays) have a detailed assessment of the structure and function of the kidneyspatency of the ureters, bladder and urethra (revealed renal failure, pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, abnormalities and malformations of kidney development, ureters, urolithiasis with precise localization of stones, benign and malignant tumors of the urinary system, cystitis, adenoma of the prostate, strictures of the ureter and urethrachannel)
7) abdominal surgery, plain radiography of the abdomen is a major component in the rapid diagnosis of intestinal obstruction, also on the overview image of the abdomen can detect a complication of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcers, as the perforation,
8) gastroenterology, here with the use of contrastsubstances (of BaSO4 barium sulphate) can detect various abnormalities of the esophagus (anomalies and malformations, benign and malignant tumors, strictures, diverticula, hiatal hernia, stenosis, esophageal varices), stomach (peptic ulcer, benign and malignant tumors of various localization, gastritis), small intestine (duodenal ulcer, stenosis), colon (diverticula, benign and malignant tumors, ulcerative changes in the mucosa), also with the help of contrast agents can investigate the bile ducts and the ducts of the pancreas and thus identify their pathology (stones, cholecystitis, pancreatitis);
9) dentistry, teeth are used as snapshots and orthopantomogram (all the teeth on one image), revealed the following pathological congenital and acquired deformities of the jaw area of the anomalies of the teeth, dental caries, pulpitis, periodontitis, periodontal disease;
10) gynecology, here with contrast media by means of X-rays can be estimated permeability of the fallopian tubes, which is one of the main problems with infertility.Thus, it is seen that the conventional radiography is an important part of proper and rapid diagnosis of certain pathological processes in humans.Of course, now there are advanced diagnostic techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and other, but also an ordinary X-ray, which is in the service of humanity for more than 100 years, it is always the same and will be widely used now and in the future.
Although radial load at small x-ray, they can lead to changes in the genetic apparatus of cells - radiation mutations.But this does not mean that you need to give up on X-ray, just to fulfill her need for protection reasons and observance of the rules.Here it is necessary to divide the X-ray diagnostic and preventive.Absolute contraindications for diagnostic radiography not.But you should know that all and sundry can not do it, too.Any radiological examination must be justified, it must be carried out only on prescription, and only with the direction of a physician or the relevant entry in the history.Not recommended "self assign" his study, that is, to come to the radiologist and request to do research because the foot hurts.Even pregnancy and childhood are not contraindications, when there any other methods except ray, can not help in the correct diagnosis when it comes to the life of the patient.The risk of carrying out these studies patients are always far less potential harm, which could bring the disease is not identified in time.Nursing mothers before the X-ray is recommended to express milk.Although the X-rays do not affect the composition of the milk.Preventive radiography (mostly fluoroscopy) is not carried out for pregnant women and children up to 14 years.