Tests for diabetes - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Already on the early signs of the patient may be suspected at diabetes and in this case must immediately pass a few tests to confirm or disprove the suspicion.How can we identify diabetes?
in the diagnosis of diabetes important role played by laboratory methods and the correct interpretation.
There is a certain algorithm of examination of people suspected of having diabetes.Healthy people with normal body weight and family history of puristic examine the level of glucose in the blood and urine (empty stomach).
analysis glikilirovanny hemoglobin (GH) further necessarily surrenders Upon receipt of the normal range.Approximately 5-8% of hemoglobin present in the red blood cells, attaches itself to the glucose molecule, so these molecules are called glycated.The degree of glycosylation depend on the concentration of glucose in the erythrocytes which persists throughout their 120 day life (rate of 4.5 -6.5% of total hemoglobin).Therefore, at any given time the percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin level
Upon receiving a high level of glycosylated hemoglobin (screening a healthy patient) is recommended to determine the blood glucose level after 2 hours after glucose loading (75g).This test is especially required if the blood glucose level although higher than normal but not high enough to manifest symptoms of diabetes.The test is performed in the morning after an overnight fasting (at least 12 hours).Determine the initial level after glucose and 2 hours after taking 75 g of glucose dissolved in 300 ml of water.Normally (immediately after glucose load), its concentration in blood increases, which stimulates the secretion of insulin.This in turn reduces the concentration of glucose in the blood, through the level 2 chasa substantially returns to its original healthy person and does not return to normal baseline values exceeding twice in patients with diabetes.
It should be noted that this insulin (pancreas hormone) involved in maintaining a constant level of glucose in blood (determined by the degree of secretion of glucose levels).Insulin is necessary for differentiation of various forms of diabetes.Thus, the first type of diabetes is characterized by low levels of insulin, the second type - normal or elevated.
Determination of insulin is used to confirm the diagnosis in people with borderline glucose intolerance.Normally, the insulin level is 15-180 pmol / L (2-25 mU / L).
may need additional studies for the diagnosis of diabetes .This definition of the C-peptide antibodies to the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans insulin antibodies, antibodies to GAD, leptin.
No less important is the determination of C-peptide.Insulin and C-peptide are the end products of proinsulin conversion to beta-cells of pancreatic islets.Determination of C-peptide provides control over the functioning of the beta cells of the pancreas and insulin production.Diagnostic significance of what is C-peptide allows to evaluate the level of insulin and more clearly pick up the necessary (missing) insulin.If the C-peptide in blood decreases, it indicates failure of insulin produced by the pancreas specific cells.The normal level of C-peptide is 0.5 - 2.0 g / l.
Currently, much attention is paid to the definition of antibodies to beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans, the presence of which leads to the destruction of the cells themselves and the disruption of the synthesis of insulin, the consequence of which is the appearance of type 1 diabetes.Autoimmune mechanisms of cell disruption can be hereditary nature, as well, can be started and a number of external factors, such as viral infections, various forms of stress and exposure to toxic substances.Thus, the determination of antibodies to beta-cells can be used for early detection and diagnosis of predisposition to type 1 diabetes.Patients with the presence of autoantibodies is observed a progressive decrease in beta-cell function and insulin secretion.
Antibodies to insulin found in 35-40% of patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for the first time.Antibodies to insulin may occur in pre-diabetes stage.
found and an antigen, which is the main target for autoantibodies associated with the development of insulin-dependent diabetes.This antigen was glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad) - very informative marker for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes.Antibodies to GAD may be determined by the patient for 5-7 years before clinical manifestations of the disease.It is important to include the definition of these markers makes it possible to differentiate 97% of cases of type 1 diabetes type 2, when the clinic type 1 diabetes type 2 masquerades.
Finally, body weight marker signal - Leptin, which is formed in fat cells.It gives the signal to the brain to stop food intake and increase energy expenditure.However, this mechanism is disturbed when a large excess weight.These people are too many fat cells secrete leptin, and its level increases significantly with each extra gram of weight.When leptin in the blood becomes too much, it ceases to play a signaling function.
Remember always that timely diagnosis and treatment will allow you to avoid the complications of the disease.