Leukocyte blood parameters - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Laboratory

leukocytes (white blood cells, white blood cells, WBC)

White blood cells - blood cells that are responsible for detection and neutralization of foreign components of the immune defense of the body against viruses and bacteria, the removal of dead body's own cells.The formation of white blood cells (leucopoiesis) takes place in the bone marrow and lymph nodes.

There are 5 types of leukocytes: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils.Calculation of the percentage of these forms is conducted at a test appointment WBC.The number of leukocytes during the day can be changed by various factors, without, however, outside the reference range.

Physiological increase in white blood cells (physiological leukocytosis) occurs when entering them into the bloodstream of the blood depot, such as after a meal Hour (it is desirable to carry out the analysis on an empty stomach), after exercise (not recommended physical effort to blood sampling) and intoafternoon (preferably blood samples for the

analysis carried out in the morning), with stress, exposure to cold and heat.In women, the physiological increase in white blood cell count observed in the premenstrual period, in the second half of pregnancy and childbirth.Jet physiological leukocytosis provided redistribution of the wall and circulating neutrophils pools, mobilization of bone marrow pool.When stimulated leykopoeza under the action of infectious agents, toxins, under the influence of inflammation and tissue necrosis factors, endogenous toxins increases the number of white blood cells by increasing their production in the bone marrow and lymph nodes.Certain infectious and pharmacological agents can cause a reduction of white blood cells (leukopenia).The absence of leukocytosis in the acute phase of infection, especially if you have left shift in leukocyte formula (increased content of young forms) is an unfavorable sign.The leukocytosis can develop as a result of neoplastic processes in hematopoietic tissues (proliferation of leukemic blast cells with the appearance of forms).Hematologic diseases may occur also in leukopenia.Leukocytosis and leukopenia usually develop as a result preimuschstvennogo increase or decrease of certain types of white blood cells (see. Leukocyte formula).

Units: thousand / ml (x 10 3 cells / ml).
Alternative Units: 109 cells / l.
conversion factor: 109 cells / L = 10 3 cells / ml = thousand / ml.

Reference Range:

Age leukocyte level, thousand / ml
& lt;1 year 6,00 - 17,50
1 - 2 years 6,00 - 17,00
2 - 4 years 5,50 - 15,50
4- 6 years 5,00 - 14,50
6 - 10 years 4,50 - 13,50
10 - 16 years 4,50 - 13,00
& gt; 16 years 4,50 - 11,00

level courses (leukocytosis):

reactive (normal) leukocytosis:

  1. impact of physiological factors (pain, cold or hot tub, exercise, emotional stress, exposure to sunlight and UV rays);
  2. condition after surgery;
  3. menstruation;
  4. childbirth.

leukocytosis resulting from stimulation leykopoeza:

  1. infectious-inflammatory processes (osteomyelitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, sepsis, meningitis, abscess, appendicitis, abscesses, arthritis, pyelonephritis, peritonitis) bacterial, viral or fungal etiology;
  2. intoxication, including endogenous (diabetic acidosis, eclampsia, uremia, gout);
  3. burns and injuries;
  4. acute bleeding;
  5. surgery;
  6. heart attacks internal organs (myocardium, lungs, kidneys, spleen), rheumatic fever;
  7. malignant tumors;
  8. glucocorticoid therapy;
  9. acute and chronic anemia of various etiologies (hemolytic, autoimmune, hemorrhagic);

tumor leukocytosis: myeloid and lymphocytic leukemia.

level decline (leukopenia):

  1. some viral and bacterial infections (influenza, typhoid fever, tularemia, viral hepatitis, septicemia, measles, malaria, measles, mumps, miliary tuberculosis, AIDS);
  2. systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and other collagen.;
  3. reception sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, thyreostatics, cytostatics;
  4. exposure to ionizing radiation;
  5. leykopenicheskie form of leukemia;
  6. splenomegaly, hypersplenism, a condition after splenzhektomii;
  7. hypo- and aplasia of the bone marrow;
  8. Addison's disease-Birmera;
  9. anaphylactic shock;
  10. wasting and cachexia;
  11. pernicious anemia;
  12. Felty syndrome;
  13. Gaucher disease;
  14. paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

Leykoformula leukocytes (white blood cells, white blood cells)

White blood cells - red blood cells associated with protective functions.The morphological features (type of nucleus, the presence and nature of cytoplasmic inclusions) distinguish 5 main types of white blood cells - neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils.Furthermore, leukocytes differ in maturity.Most forms of mature leukocytes progenitor cells (Young, myelocytes, promyelocytes, form blast cells) as well as plasma cells, young nuclear erythroid cells and others. Appear in peripheral blood in case of pathology only.Different types of white blood cells have different functions, so the definition of the ratio of different types of white blood cells, the content of the young forms, identification of abnormal cell forms, a description of characteristic cell morphology changes, reflecting changes in their functional activity, brings valuable diagnostic information.

Some embodiments change (shift) of leukocyte formula:

  • left shift (blood present an increased number of band neutrophils, may cause metamyelocytes (young), myelocytes)) may indicate: acute infectious diseases;physical stress;acidosis and coma. right shift (blood appear gipersegmentirovannye granulocytes) may indicate: megaloblastic anemia;kidney and liver;state after a blood transfusion. significant rejuvenation of cells (in the presence of blood marked metamyelocytes, myelocytes, promyelocytes, blasts) may indicate: chronic leukaemias;erythroleukemia;myelofibrosis;metastasis of malignant tumors;acute leukemia.

Changes in the level of certain leukocyte populations:

neutrocytosis - increase in total white blood cell count due to neutrophils.

Neutropenia - decrease in neutrophils.

lymphocytosis - an increase in lymphocyte content.

Lymphopenia - decrease in lymphocyte content.

Eosinophilia - increase of eosinophils.

Eosinopenia - decrease in eosinophils.

Monocytosis - increase of monocytes.

monocytopenia (monotsitopeniya) - decrease in monocytes.

Neutrophils Neutrophils - most abundant type of white blood cells, they make up 50 - 75% of all leukocytes.So named for the appearance of cytoplasmic granules when stained by Giemsa.Depending on the degree of maturity and the shape of the nucleus in the peripheral blood was isolated stab (younger) and segmented (mature) neutrophils.Younger cell neutrophilic series - young (metamyelocytes), myelocytes, promyelocytes - appear in the peripheral blood in the case of pathology, and are a testament to the stimulation of the formation of cells of this type.Their main function - protecting against infection by chemotaxis (directed movement towards stimulating agents) and phagocytosis (digestion and absorption) of alien organisms.

Reference Range:

in children and adults, depending on age

Age segmented neutrophils,% band neutrophils,%

& lt;15 days

31 - 56

1 - 6

15 days - 1 year

17 - 51

1 - 6

1- 2 years

29 - 54 1 - 6

2 - 5 years

33 - 61 1 - 6
5 - 7 years 39 - 64 1 - 6
7 - 9 years 42 - 66 1 - 6
9 - 11 years 44 - 66 1 - 6
11 -15 years 46 - 66 1 - 6
& gt;15 years 48 - 78 1 - 6

Increased levels of neutrophils (neytrofilёz, neutrophils):

  1. infections (caused by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, rickettsia, certain viruses, spirochetes);inflammatory (rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, pancreatitis, dermatitis, peritonitis, thyroiditis);condition after surgery;ischemic necrosis (infarction viscera - infarction, kidney, etc...);endogenous intoxication (diabetes, uremia, eclampsia, hepatocyte necrosis);physical stress and emotional strain and stress of the situation: the impact of heat, cold, pain, burns and childbirth, during pregnancy, with fear, anger, joy;cancers (tumors of different organs);taking certain medications, such as corticosteroids, digitalis drugs, heparin, acetylcholine;poisoning by lead, mercury, ethylene glycol, insecticides.

level decline of neutrophils (neutropenia):

  1. certain infections caused by bacteria (typhoid and paratyphoid, brucellosis), viruses (influenza, measles, chicken pox, hepatitis, rubella), protozoa (malaria), rickettsia (typhusfever), prolonged infection in elderly and handicapped people;diseases of the blood system (hypo-and aplastic, Megaloblastic and iron deficiency anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, acute leukemia, hypersplenism);congenital neutropenia (hereditary agranulocytosis);Chediak Higashi Syndrome;anaphylactic shock;hyperthyroidism;effects of cytostatic agents, anticancer drugs;Medicinal neutropenia associated with increased sensitivity to individual action of certain drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants, antihistamines, antibiotics, antiviral agents, psychotropic drugs, drugs acting on the cardiovascular system, diuretics, antidiabetic drugs).

Lymphocytes Lymphocytes - a population of white blood cells, providing immune surveillance (recognition of "his-alien"), the formation and regulation of humoral and cellular immune response, maintenance of immune memory.They belong to agranulocytes (do not contain granules in the cytoplasm).Lymphocytes constitute about 20 - 40% of the total number of leukocytes.They are able to recognize different antigens due to the presence of specific receptors on the surface of cells.Different subpopulations of lymphocytes perform different functions - provide an effective cellular immunity (including transplant rejection, destruction of tumor cells), humoral response (in the form of antibodies to foreign fusion proteins - of different classes of immunoglobulins).Lymphocytes by isolating the protein regulators - cytokines involved in the regulation of immune response and coordination of the entire immune system as a whole, these cells are associated with providing immunological memory (the body's ability to accelerate and enhance the immune response at the second meeting with a foreign agent).

IMPORTANT! It should be understood that leukocytic formula reflects the relative (percentage) content of leukocytes of different kinds, and increase or decrease the percentage of lymphocytes can not reflect the true (absolute) lymphocytosis or lymphopenia, and be the result of reduction or increase in the absolute number of leucocytes other species (usuallyneutrophils).

Reference Range:

in children and adults, depending on age

Age Lymphocytes,%
& lt;2 weeks 22 - 55
2 weeks - 1 year 45 - 70
1 - 2 years 37 - 60
2 - 5 years 33 - 55
6-7 years 30 - 50
8 years 30 - 50
9 - 11 years 30 - 46
12 - 15 years 30 - 45
& gt;15 years 19 - 37

Increasing the level of lymphocytes (lymphocytosis):

  1. infectious diseases: infectious mononucleosis, viral hepatitis, cytomegalovirus infection, whooping cough, SARS, toxoplasmosis, herpes, measles, HIV infection;blood diseases: acute and chronic lymphocytic leukemia;lymphosarcoma, the disease heavy chains - Franklin's disease;tetrachloroethane poisoning, lead, arsenic, carbon disulfide;treatment drugs such as levodopa, phenytoin, valproic acid, narcotic analgesics.

Lowering levels of lymphocytes (lymphopenia):

  1. acute infection and disease;miliary tuberculosis;loss of lymph through the intestines;Hodgkin's disease;systemic lupus erythematosus;aplastic anemia;renal failure;end-stage cancer;immunodeficiencies (deficient T cells);radiotherapy;receiving drugs with cytostatic effect (chlorambucil, asparaginase), glucocorticoids, administration antilymphocytic serum.

Eosinophils Eosinophils

(cytoplasmic granules stained by acid dyes) - a white blood cells involved in the body's response to parasitic, allergic, autoimmune, infectious and oncological diseases.Eosinophilic changes in leykoformule occur when the allergic component in the pathogenesis of the disease, which is accompanied by the overproduction of IgE.These cells are involved in tissue reactions which take part parasites or IgE class antibodies, they have a cytotoxic effect on parasites.Assessment of the dynamics of change in number of eosinophils in the inflammatory process has prognostic significance.

Eosinopenia (decrease in the number of eosinophils in the blood of less than 0,2x109 / l) is often observed at the beginning of inflammation.

Eosinophilia (increase in the number of eosinophils & gt; 5%) corresponds to the beginning of recovery.However, a number of infectious and other diseases characterized by high levels of IgE eosinophilia after inflammation, indicating that the incompleteness of its immunoreaction with an allergic component.At the same time reducing the number of eosinophils in the active phase of the disease are often indicative of the severity and the process is disadvantageous feature.In general, change in the number of eosinophils in the peripheral blood cells is the result of an imbalance in the production processes of the bone marrow, their migration and tissue decay.

Reference Range:

in children and adults, depending on age

Age
Eosinophils,%
& lt;2 weeks.
1 - 6
2 weeks.- 1 year
1 - 5
1 - 2 years
1 - 7
2 - 5 years
1 - 6
& gt;5 years
1 - 5

level courses (eosinophilia):

  1. allergic sensitization of the organism (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, hay fever, atopic dermatitis, eczema, eosinophilic granulomatous vasculitis, food allergy);