Platelet blood parameters - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Laboratory

thrombocytes (platelets, platelets) - blood cells involved in hemostasis.

platelets - small non-nuclear cells, oval or round shape;their diameter is 2 - 4 microns.Precursors of platelets are megakaryocytes.The platelet blood vessels may be located at the walls and in the bloodstream.In the quiescent state (circulating) are disc-shaped platelets.When activated, platelets cells become spherical and form a special outgrowths (pseudopodia).With such protuberances may platelets to adhere to each other or adhere to the damaged vascular wall.Platelets have the following abilities: aggregation, adhesion, degranulation, clot retraction.On the surface they can move coagulation factors (fibrinogen), anticoagulants, biologically active agents (serotonin) as well as circulating immune complexes.Platelet adhesion and aggregation allow to provide hemostasis in small vessels they accumulate in the area of ​​damage, adhere to the damaged wall.Stimulants are platelet aggregation, thrombin, epinephrine, serotonin, collag

en.Thrombin causes aggregation of platelets and the formation of pseudopodia.The platelet pellet contains clotting factors, enzyme peroxidase, serotonin, calcium ions Ca2 +, ADP (adenosine diphosphate), von Willebrand factor, platelet-fibrinogen, platelet derived growth factor.The retraction of blood clot - is the property of platelets to clot and seal wrung serum.This platelets stick to the fibrin strands and release trombostenin, which is deposited on the strands of fibrin, as a result of the last compacted and twisted to form a primary thrombus.Platelet count varies depending on the time of day and throughout the year.Physiological decline in platelet count observed during menstruation and pregnancy, and increase - after exercise.

Units: thousand / ml (x 10 3 cells / ml).
Alternative Units: x 109 cells / L.
Conversion factor: x 109 cells / l = x 10 3 cells / ml = thousand / ml.
Reference Range: 150 - 400 thousand / ml.

level courses (thrombocytosis):

functional (reactive) thrombocytosis - temporary, caused by activation of hematopoiesis:

  1. splenectomy;
  2. inflammation (systemic inflammatory disease, osteomyelitis, tuberculosis);
  3. anemia of various origins (after blood loss, iron deficiency, hemolytic);
  4. state after surgery;
  5. oncological diseases (cancer, lymphoma);
  6. physical stress;
  7. acute blood loss or hemolysis;

tumor thrombocytosis:

  1. myeloproliferative disorders (myeloid leukemia);
  2. idiopathic hemorrhagic thrombocythemia;
  3. erythremia.

level decrease (thrombocytopenia):

congenital thrombocytopenia:

  1. syndrome Wiskott - Aldrich;
  2. syndrome Chediak - Higashi;
  3. Fanconi syndrome;
  4. anomaly Mei - Hegglina;
  5. syndrome Bernard - Soulier (giant platelets).

acquired thrombocytopenia:

  1. autoimmune idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura;
  2. drug thrombocytopenia;
  3. systemic lupus erythematosus;
  4. thrombocytopenia associated with infection (viral and bacterial infections, typhus, malaria, toxoplasmosis);
  5. splenomegaly;
  6. aplastic anemia and mieloftiz (bone marrow replacement by tumor cells and fibrous tissue);
  7. tumor metastases in the bone marrow;
  8. megaloblastic anemia;
  9. paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria;
  10. Evans syndrome (autoimmune hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia);
  11. DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation);
  12. massive blood transfusion, cardiopulmonary bypass;
  13. in the neonatal period (prematurity, neonatal hemolytic disease, neonatal autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura);
  14. congestive heart failure;
  15. syndrome Fisher - Evans;
  16. thrombosis of renal veins.