Allergies in children and adults - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Emergencies

Allergy - a type of immune response occurs with damage to their own organs and tissues.That is, under the influence of circumstances the immune system begins to respond to some substances (allergens), often completely harmless, as something very alien and dangerous.

Allergy - is a perverse way of protecting the body.For example, the immune system decides that the worst poison to humans is birch pollen in the spring, when the bloom this tree begins to actively defend the body against it.The external manifestations of this struggle will be watery eyes, sneezing, shortness of nasal breathing and active nasal discharge.Allergic conditions
currently very widespread and are found on the statistics 30% of the population.
Some authors tend to call the 21st century - the century of allergic diseases.

Mechanisms of allergy

pseudoallergic (false allergic) reaction

Separately isolated pseudoallergy reaction.This state looks very reminiscent of the classic allergy, but proceeding without th

e participation of the immune system.Reasons pseudoallergic reactions quite a lot.For example, the liver works, parasitic diseases, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, excessive intake of histamine-containing foods.The last reason is one of the most frequent. What do have to eat, that would have a chance to call at this type reactions?The most frequent provocateurs: sea fish and other seafood, citrus, chocolate, pickled cabbage, some varieties of cheese, wine, etc.Pseudoallergy usually differs from the true allergy, symptoms occur only after a large amount of supplied allergen.For example, if you have red spots appear on the skin only after eating an entire chocolate, and half of this amount is transferred safely, then most likely, you are dealing with an allergic reaction false.

"allergy" to alcohol

frequent provocateur development pseudoallergic reactions is the use of alcohol.Especially famous for this guilt, liqueurs, vermouth.In the first place there is a red wine.It is noticed that the wine is older and matured, the more it is formed substances that can provoke the reaction pseudoallergic.

Separation reactions to true and false is of fundamental importance, as treatment strategy they vary greatly.But to carry out a differential diagnosis may only doctor who has experience with these diseases.

Causes Allergies

Currently divided into several main reasons allergies that can lead to the development of allergic disease.

1) Heredity.It is proved that a predisposition to allergy can be passed from parents to children, and more often than not, these genes are passed it through the maternal line.It has been observed that children with allergies in 20-70% of cases (depending on the child's illness) mother suffers from allergic diseases and in 12-40% of cases - allergies - father.If both parents have allergies, the probability of its manifestation in children is 80%.

2) frequent infections, especially during childhood create preconditions for the development of allergy in the future.

3) Excessive sterile living conditions.It is not strange it sounds, but too sterile living conditions, a rare contact with infectious agents create the preconditions to a shift of immune responses towards the allergic inflammation.That is why allergy is more common in people living in cities than in rural areas and in families in which only one child.This fact also explains the high prevalence of allergy in the population with a higher social level.

4) Environmental factors."Progress" of modern civilization has led to the fact that people from the very first days of life comes into contact with diverse and numerous aggressive sprays and chemicals.Foods contain biologically active substances, antibiotics, hormones, etc.There is constant exposure to electromagnetic radiation of different spectrum.This impact does not pass without a trace, and the growth of allergic disease is only confirmed.

5) Diseases of the internal organs.Sometimes impetus to the development of allergies gives a malfunction of the internal organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, hepatic, endocrine, nervous system etc.

It's just basic, the most popular theories about the causes of allergies.Most likely, there is a combination of both.For example, people with allergic diseases in your own lives in a big city, where environmental situation leaves much to be desired - this person is likely to manifest allergic to anything.

main allergens

Allergy symptoms

Allergy symptoms can be general (systemic) and local.

Common allergy symptoms

By common symptoms of allergy include chills, fever, general arousal or, conversely, block the patient, pale skin, fall in blood pressure, impaired consciousness. Common symptoms can occur at sufficiently severe allergic diseases such as anaphylaxis, angioedema.

Local allergy symptoms.

Local allergy symptoms can be observed on the part of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, mucous nasal, bronchial tree.

1) Skin manifestations of allergy.Allergy skin
Typical symptoms of allergies skin redness and dryness of the skin, itching, burning, sensitivity to external physical stimuli (cold, sun), skin rash on the type blisters, papules.Appeared rash may merge, sharply demarcated from the surrounding skin, may migrate, that is now on the same skin area, tomorrow another.
Classic examples of allergic diseases occurring with skin lesions, are atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.
2) Complaints from the gastrointestinal tract allergies: flatulence, abdominal pain, loose stools, nausea.
3) Ocular symptoms in allergies.
patients with allergic eye disease may complain of foreign body sensation in the eye, itching, burning, tearing, swelling of the eyelids.Redness of the eyelids and the skin around the eyes.
classic example of allergic eye disease is allergic conjunctivitis.
4) Complaints from the nasopharynx and bronchial tree allergies.
development of allergic inflammation in this area leads to the appearance of symptoms such as a sore throat, dry cough, shortness of breath, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea (the active selection from the nose), sneezing, shortness of nasal breathing, shortness of breath, choking feeling of wheezing in the chestcell.Example
diseases: allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma.

One patient with allergic disease may be both general and local manifestations of allergy.For example, allergic reactions to insect stings.

Allergies to insect bites.

Symptoms of allergies to insect bites occur due to the presence of allergy to Insect allergens (about Insect allergens cm. Above).Allergies to insect bites - one of the most difficult and dangerous types of allergic reactions.Symptoms are usually very pronounced, often marked systemic reactions by type of angioedema or even anaphylactic shock.
If angioedema occurs swelling of the face, neck.The skin in this area becomes red.Often there is swelling of the upper airway, resulting in shortness of breath, difficulty breathing.With progressive disease course - complete airway obstruction and death.
If anaphylactic shock - once dominated by the common allergy symptoms.The patient initially excited, then consciousness is inhibited until the total loss.Pressure drops sharply increases the heart rate and respiratory rate, shortness of breath occurs.In the absence of treatment - a high risk of death.
directly at the site of the bite of the skin become edematous, there is a pronounced hyperemia (redness), intense itching.
difficulty for the patient in the fact that allergen intake (due to the bite) may occur suddenly, and people can not protect themselves from it completely.If you look at the frequency of anaphylactic shock, have been fatal, in the first place it will be allergic to insects.Such patients advised to carry anti-shock set: 0.1% solution of epinephrine ampule suprastin, 2 ampoules of prednisolone 25 mg.Plus, the syringes.Insect bites - just enter these drugs.Steps should be discussed with your doctor.

allergy to the sun.

The most common symptoms of the disease - the appearance of red spots and blisters on the skin after sun exposure.Skin elements can occur immediately after exposure to ultraviolet light, and a few hours later.Affects the open areas of the body.
There are a number of substances, which hit the skin or ingestion may enhance the sensitivity to UV.It is celery, carrots, dill, fennel, lime, figs, yarrow, St. John's wort.The same ability to have some drugs.For example, vitamin E, tetracycline, antibiotics from the group of sulphonamides, griseofulvin, most NSAIDs.Their use during the period of potential exacerbation (spring and summer) is not desirable.
Examination and treatment conducted by a doctor allergist or dermatologist.It is necessary to find the causes that can provoke allergic to the sun.This can be helminthiasis, liver disease, endocrine disorders exchange and so on.The list of tests is large enough.
Treatment consists in the appointment of protective regime.Patients who are allergic to ultraviolet light should avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, use protective creams with a high protection factor.Appointed antihistamines, sorbents.Most effective gistoglobulin.Good effect gives plasmapheresis.

Thermal allergy.

Fortunately, this is a very rare form of allergic disease, manifested by urticaria rashes type.After any thermal effects, for example, after a hot bath techniques on the skin appear very large blisters, accompanied by pruritus.Thermal allergy can be combined with solar.
To confirm the diagnosis can be for 1-3 minutes to attach to the skin of a warm object, heated to 48 degrees.
Treatment is carried out by the general principles of treatment of allergic disease.Recommend to avoid precipitating factors.

Allergic reactions to sperm.

Allergic reactions to seminal fluid found in the currently increasing.Risk factor in women sperm antibodies is a common allergic predisposition, urogenital tract infections, frequent change of sexual partners during unprotected intercourse.Develop an allergy to sperm can occur in women as a local inflammatory symptoms (local itching, swelling) after intercourse, and infertility.Perhaps the development of an allergic disposition, both the sperm of a particular man, and the semen itself.Therapy is conducted jointly by doctors allergists and gynecologists.

allergy in children.

allergy in children has some special features.First of all, it concerns the most significant allergens that can cause allergic reactions.In the period up to 5 years in the first place on prevalence are food allergens.The most common food allergens: milk, eggs, nuts, fish.At older ages, a higher prevalence already have household (dust, allergens animals) and pollen allergens.

Symptoms of allergies in children with photos.

In early childhood, including the newborn in dominated allergic diseases occurring with lesions of the skin.At the same time the true allergic diseases rarely begin before the age of six months.

most common allergic disease in children under one year - atopic dermatitis.This allergic condition in children is sometimes mistakenly called diathesis .Currently, in the classification of diseases, adopted in Russia, the term " diathesis " is not mentioned.

symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children, especially in infants, usually first appear on the face, and with a serious allergy covers the entire body.

Here are a few photos of allergies in children under one year

allergy in children usually manifests itself even more strongly than in adulthood.

Additional photos of cutaneous manifestations of allergies in children you can look in the respective sections:

symptoms of atopic dermatitis,
Urticaria

have a high prevalence in children pseudoallergy reaction.Most often they are the cause of various disorders in the gastrointestinal tract and parasitic diseases.To distinguish pseudo allergic reactions only an experienced doctor can from allergies, so when it detects signs of allergy in a child is not engaged in self-diagnosis and consult a specialist.

treatment of allergies in children.

treatment of allergies in children carried out in accordance with the general principles of treatment of allergic diseases.In childhood, the greatest effect gives holding the allergen - specific therapy (SIT - therapy), which should seek to conduct.

Features course and treatment of atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis in childhood are described in the articles:

Atopic dermatitis in children,
allergic asthma in children,
Allergic rhinitis in the child,
Allergic conjunctivitis in children.

Allergy Treatment

several groups of drugs can be used in the treatment of allergic diseases.Their combination, dosage and the appointment of allergy determined by the physician depending on the specific situation.Self-medication in allergy is extremely dangerous.Inadequate treatment of allergies can exacerbate allergic disease or cause a variety of side effects that inevitably arise if misused antiallergic drugs.

1) Antihistamines in the treatment of allergies.
most famous group of drugs antiallergic drugs.It is better to give preference to the second drug (tsetrin, Kestin, Claritin, etc.) and third generation (erius, Telfast, ksizal, Zyrtec).The drug is prescribed 1 time per day, duration of treatment of 5-7 days.Sometimes the duration of their admission can be several months.

2) Derivatives kromoglitsevoy acid in the treatment of allergies.Suffice old, but still used group of drugs.Available in the form of eye drops (kromogeksal eye drops), nasal sprays (kromogeksal, kromoglin) for inhalation of aerosols (INTA, tayled).The effectiveness of drugs is low enough, can only be used for mild degrees of disease severity.

3) Glucocorticoids in the treatment of allergies.
very powerful anti-allergic agents.They can be used only on prescription.
Kortikosteroydy comes in the form of "local" use and overall impact (pills, injectables).
Topical exposure currently occupy an important place in the treatment of allergies.They can be used for removing the aggravation, and for permanent, supportive treatment of allergies.They may be issued in the form of ointments, creams and other tools for external use (eg lokoyd, advantan), nasal sprays (eg Fliksonaze, Nasonex), aerosols for inhalation (eg, beklozon, fliksotid).Although the latest generation of drugs are relatively safe and devoid of most of the side effects traditionally attributed to hormones - their use is possible only by a specialist recommendations.Never exceed the recommended duration of taking the drug.
Preparations for systemic effect produced in tablet and injectable forms.Drugs: prednisolone, dexamethasone, etc. metipred