Dislocation of the foot (ankle , ankle foot ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Emergencies

In recent decades, lifestyle, most people become less mobile: Time passes in the office, and free time is devoted to the seat at the computer, TV, or just lying on the couch.This reduces muscle tone, a decrease in strength and elasticity of ligaments, and, as a consequence, there is an increased risk of injury.Very often, doctors are faced with traumatic injuries of the ankle joint, the motion of the retaining full body weight.The most common injury of the ankle (foot) is dislocated.

Dislocation ankle - a violation of the normal position to form this joint bones - fibula, the tibia and the talus, which is accompanied by partial damage or complete rupture of ligaments.

reasons dislocated ankle

main cause dislocation of the ankle are increased load on the foot at the wrong position it.Damage to the ankle are common among athletes, but also ordinary people: the drop, knock, tucking his feet, wearing uncomfortable shoes.

Symptoms dislocated ankle

level ligament damage defines three degrees of severit

y of the ankle injury, each of which is characterized by certain symptoms:

- first degree characterized by discontinuity of individual constituent fibers ligament manifested mild swelling, tenderness at loads, walking and palpation.There is a slight swelling of the joint.Despite the painful motor function preserved.
- For second degree characterized by a partial ligament tear in which the swelling extends to the entire upper part of the foot, a person experiences severe pain not only walking, but also at rest.When walking, the patient is experiencing a pronounced discomfort and pain.
- third degree dislocation determined by the total rupture of the articular ligaments.At the same time swelling and bleeding apply to the surface of the foot and the sole, palpation and stress on the foot there is a sharp pain, walking is impossible.

Appearance legs with ankle dislocation 3 degrees

first aid for suspected dislocated foot

When an ankle injury first aid should be provided to the victim immediately before seeking medical attention.From the speed of rendering first aid to the patient depends on the duration of the rehabilitation period, and the degree of restoration of normal motor activity of the ankle joint.

As first aid is necessary to make the following manipulations:

- maximum immobilization of the affected foot with an elastic bandage;
- leg should be placed on a raised surface of a solid: the amplified blood flow decreases edema;
- attach to the place of injury ice, which will reduce the swelling and pain - filled with ice or cold water bottle are wrapped with a towel to prevent excessive hypothermia joint and is applied to the site of the injury for 10 minutes every half-hour;
- in case of need to give the victim a pain reliever;
- immediately bring the patient to a medical facility.

When an ankle injury is strictly prohibited:

- attempt to straighten a dislocated, as this may lead to rupture of the ligaments and bone fracture;
- if the injury occurred in the winter, it can not be removed from the victim's shoes, as it can significantly worsen his condition.

diagnosis of dislocation of the foot

Dislocation of ankle joint has similar symptoms and may be confused with such injuries as stretching ankle ligament injury and fracture of foot bones.Similarly diagnose injury and to determine its severity can only doctor using procedures such as:

- a detailed survey of the victim;
- palpation of the joint;
- radiography;
- in severe cases, MRI or CT scan of the damaged area.

X-ray with an ankle dislocation

Treatment of dislocation of the foot

Treatment of dislocation of ankle joint depends on the severity of the injury and the presence of the victim's co-morbidities.

Treatment of dislocation of ankle first degree

1. Cryotherapy - the impact of cold on the damaged area.This is achieved by means of applying to the place of the injured hypothermic cooling packages which can be purchased at the pharmacy, or the usual bottle filled with ice or snow.The most effective is this procedure in the first hours after the trauma.
2. Immobilization damaged joint using a bandage of elastic bandage or brace.In the absence of special facilities for temporary bandages can use masking tape, cloth, scarf, etc.When applying the bandage need to ensure that the foot was fixed at a right angle, and she had a bandage loose enough to ensure the normal circulation.
3. Ensure full rest damaged foot.
4. Once the patient ceases to feel a sharp pain that occurs, usually 2-3 days, it is recommended the imposition of warming compresses, iodine mesh, blur warming ointments, massage and warm baths.Have a positive effect and paraffin baths.

In some cases, the patient is prescribed pain medications and physical therapy, significantly accelerate the process of tissue repair.

Removing bandages fixing foot is allowed only after even the smallest load no longer cause the patient pain, but in any case no earlier than two weeks after the injury.

the treatment of dislocation of the ankle of the first degree, some effective methods of traditional medicine:
- Prepare an infusion of succession, celandine, tansy and calendula flowers, which as a compress applied to the injured site.
- Prepare a mixture of half cup of 9% vinegar and half a tablespoon of salt.Cloth soaked with the solution applied to the damaged area, which contributes to reduce swelling and relieve pain.

Treatment of dislocation of ankle second degree

treatment differs somewhat from the treatment of ankle joint injury more mild.The foot is not fixed with an elastic bandage, and with the imposition of a U-shaped plaster splints.The cast is removed after about ten or twelve days, during which patients were warming physiotherapy, massage and physiotherapy.In carrying out these procedures splints removed.

the same time appointed promotes reduction and removal of edema and symptoms of inflammation course nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen, nimesulide, ketorolac and others. It also shows the use of analgesics in the form of pills and injections.In the case of significant damage to the cartilage assigned oral administration chondroprotectors stimulating the synthesis of chondroitin and regeneration of damaged tissue trauma.

Once removed plaster splints held a long course of physical therapy, the recovery of motor activity of the injured ankle.Also appointed an external application relating to a class chondroprotectors ointments, reducing the effect of which significantly reduces the duration of the rehabilitation period.

Typically, the recovery occurs in three weeks.

Treatment of dislocation of ankle third degree

When diagnosing third-degree dislocation of the ankle is a mandatory hospitalization of the patient.It conducts operations, during which the restoration of the structure torn ligaments and, if necessary, replacement.Damaged tissue bonded seams or braced, and then to the area from the fingertips to the top of the tibia superimposed circular cast.The cast is removed after about three weeks after complete healing of the tissues.

After removing the plaster on the foot of the patient is applied elastic bandage, and the complex of physical therapy procedures, therapeutic massage and physical education.The final stage of the rehabilitation patient can spend at home, and for a speedy recovery and return to normal motor activity him all the doctor's recommendations must be followed carefully and regularly do individually tailored exercises.If proper treatment recovery occurs in about a month.

When the diagnosis of dislocation of ankle second and third degree joint should only reduce a skilled doctor, and it is desirable to carry out this operation within two hours after the injury.Reduction of the ankle joint is performed under local anesthesia (Novocain).

Physical therapy and physiotherapy for rehabilitation after dislocation of the foot

the treatment of dislocation of ankle big role physiotherapy and medical gymnastics.Physiotherapy course helps to reduce inflammation and removal, swelling and tenderness at the load and movement.Most often, the patient is assigned to an electrophoresis with a solution of potassium iodide, UHF, and in some cases - novocaine or lidocaine blockade of the injured joint.A range of therapeutic exercise significantly reduces the recovery period after the injury.

Exercise therapy has the following positive effects:

- developing the mobility of the damaged joint, helps to prevent future violations of the normal functioning of the joint;
- activates blood circulation in the joints, prevent muscle atrophy;
- significantly reduces the harm of bed rest long;
- exerts on the joint load dosage, resulting in greatly attenuated pain;
- increases the overall tone and fitness of the patient.

Physiotherapy consists of a series of light exercises rotation, flexion and extension of the foot.
- simultaneous and alternate flexion and extension finger sick and healthy foot, alternating and simultaneous rotation of the patient and a healthy foot, the foot turns outward and inward.Each exercise is repeated 20-30 times at a different pace.
- Sock one foot is placed on the second toe.The foot is bent and unbent, overcoming the resistance offered by the other leg.Exercise is done 15 to 20 times at a slow pace.
- In the sitting position to try to grab the toes small balls, pencil, etc.
- In a standing position to put his hands on his belt, slowly rising on his toes, and then descend on the whole foot.The exercise is performed 30 times.

In addition, a positive effect was observed by carrying out a so-called passive gymnastics, when the patient, while maintaining the immobility of the foot, straining the muscles in the injured area.Regular performance of such exercises improves circulation and supports muscle tone, preventing muscle atrophy.

Prevention of dislocation of the foot

main measures of prevention sprains ankle is properly selected diet that includes calcium-rich foods and vitamin and regular exercise.It should also be attentive to the choice of comfortable shoes.

Ed.doctor traumatologist Savchenko VR