Frostbite - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Frostbite - this particular skin lesions under the influence of low temperatures, strong winds and high humidity, with reduced reactivity.Most often such damage exposed limbs and protruding parts of the body: ears, nose, cheekbone area.Predispose to frostbite tight shoes and limited mobility, resulting in a violation of microcirculation and skin innervation.Violation of the blood supply can occur not only when a hard frost.The oxygen required for normal functioning of the tissues, it ceases to flow even at 8 degrees above zero.Therefore, with the additional conditions, such as tight and wet clothes, permanent retention in the hands of any subject, prolonged immobility and the weakening of the body's stress, malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, there is a spasm of the small vessels, disturbances in their blood and deficiency of tissue enzymes.Thus, tissue oxygen saturation decreases, which leads to tissue necrosis.
Symptoms of frostbite
To provide proper and timely assistance to the victim to frostbi
Symptoms of frostbite 1 degree
At 2 degree frostbite appear bubbles with clear content, after warming the skin appear intense itching and sharp pain of the affected skin.On the restoration of the skin may need 2 weeks.
Symptoms of frostbite degree 2
Grade 3 is characterized by lesions of all layers of the skin necrosis.Bubbles filled with bloody contents.Healing goes long, more than a month, with the formation of scars.
Symptoms of frostbite grade 3
At 4 degrees necrosis are exposed to all the soft tissue layers.Skin lesions manifest pronounced, persistent swelling and loss of sensitivity.
Symptoms of frostbite 4 degree
Symptoms of hypothermia
should be noted that under the influence of low ambient temperatures may not only local skin lesions in the form of frostbite.Quite often there is a general hypothermia, which manifests itself decrease the overall body temperature below 34 degrees, chills, decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, violation of general condition, sometimes there is a violation of consciousness.The skin of the whole body is pale, cyanotic, with elements of "goose bumps."
Such a systemic failure of the body can also occur as a result of the enhanced absorption of necrotic tissue from the source of frostbite.In this connection, when the first symptoms of the general condition of the body disorders is necessary to see a specialist.As it warms the body showed "tissue oxygen debt", it will increase hypoxia and violation of the general state of progress.In a hospital to determine the degree of severity of the victim appreciate the level of acid-base balance in the blood.
First aid for frostbite
At the first clinical signs of frostbite is necessary as soon as possible not only to warm the damaged limb in a warm room, but also the victim.
When I degree frostbite, the affected skin should be warm warm hands, light massage, apply a sterile cotton-gauze bandage.
On peeling skin is recommended to apply moisturizers, such as "cold cream", "Trikzera", "Emolyant Extra", "Ksemoz" several times a day and always after contact with water.
Safe folk remedies used in mild frostbite considered concoctions of herbs: oak bark, chamomile as a compress or shared baths.For hot compress using gauze, folded in 5-6 layers, moistened with a decoction of herbs above room temperature, put on the frostbitten skin, and then a polyethylene film on top of a thick layer of gray wool and pribintovyvayut for 6-8 hours.For optimum sealing conditions necessary each subsequent layer to increase in size.This procedure leads to vasodilation and, accordingly, warming of the skin.
Independently victim should be given hot drink, hot food.Chance of receiving drugs from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (analgin), from the group of salicylates (aspirin), from the group antispasmodics (no-spa, papaverine).
When mild general freezing the body, manifesting a body temperature of 32-34 ° C, pale or mildly cyanotic skin, "goose bumps", chills, difficulty in speech, slowing heart rate to 60-66 beats per minute, and I-degree frostbite is possiblewarming the body in the following manner.The victim is placed in a warm bath of water at an initial temperature of 24 ° C, which was gradually increased to a normal body temperature.
In deeper skin lesions, II-IV degree of rubbing the skin injury is not recommended, frostbitten limb must be secured with the help of available tools, sterile bandage material, warm and call an ambulance.
Upon cooling the body, accompanied by a body temperature below 32, a rare and shallow breathing, vomiting, convulsions victim is also recommended as soon as possible to bring to the hospital.
Treatment of frostbite
opened and removed all the rules of asepsis In the II degree frostbite blisters tires.The skin around the blisters treated with alcoholic solutions of boric or salicylic acid.Bandage with antibacterial ointments, drugs to stimulate regeneration processes Dermazin, levomikol.After 5-10 days appointed physiotherapy: electro- light baths, ultraviolet irradiation since suberythermal doses, UHF-therapy, darsonvalization method.To prevent secondary infection intramuscularly administered antibacterials (penicillin)
When frostbite III level after removal of bubbles and determine the boundaries of skin necrosis used bandages with the hypertonic solution of NaCl.During the first week of treatment remove dead tissue.To improve wound healing are also used physical therapy treatments.Sometimes limb mobility restrictions impose a plaster cast.
When frostbite IV degree carried out excision of necrotic tissue, limb amputations.
treatment of chronic dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to low temperatures, the skin used restorative teas and vitamin and means improving peripheral circulation.A patient with frostbite in the diet is necessary to strengthen protein-vitamin ingredients.From physical therapy has the greatest value in suberythermal ultraviolet irradiation doses.
Outcome and prognosis of frostbites directly depends on the degree of tissue damage.In light frostbite, you must take good care of it after repair damaged skin.Repeated frostbite previously affected skin may occur much faster.The result of severe frostbite can be not only the loss of a limb, but fatal.
As mentioned above, the factors increasing the possibility of frostbite in the cold season a lot, so you need a very serious approach to the issue of training going outside in such a difficult period for the body.
Doctor's consultation on frostbite:
1. true that excessive sweating feet is the cause of frostbite?
Sweating feet increases the humidity of clothes and shoes in contact with the skin and thus decrease their insulating properties.
2. frostbite Why are most susceptible to the elderly and children?
limb blood supply depends on the amount of blood flowing to the tissues of the vessels.Older people tend to not only obliterating diseases of limbs, but also a variety of systemic diseases of blood vessels and capillaries.All this is fundamental predisposing factor for skin lesions during the cold season.By the way, smoking people, it is because of the constant spasm of peripheral vessels, it is also more prone to frostbite remaining limbs.Children's body has not yet fully formed thermoregulatory mechanism, so any hypothermia is not ready to give an appropriate response.
3. When any skin diseases increases the risk of frostbite?
All disease as a result of which the blood supply to the tissue is broken predispose to frostbite.As an example, various systemic connective tissue disease, scar atrophy.
4. Why weakened body is more susceptible to frostbite?
The body recently undergone physical exhaustion, trauma, colds and various other injuries all metabolic processes are reduced, blood circulation is restricted and, accordingly, made less so necessary in cold weather, the heat.
5. Why do people in alcoholic intoxication often get skin lesions from the cold?
This is due to the fact that due to the expansion of peripheral vascular alcohol the body loses more heat.Such a person does not feel the beginning symptoms of skin lesions because of the reduced sensitivity threshold under the influence of alcohol factor.Often, an aggravating factor is the prolonged immobility and by displacement of limbs, resulting in disturbed blood supply to the underlying tissue and ischemia (bleeding).In these tissues there is a massive cell death, ends with the formation of necrosis.
6. Why in the cold can not rub frostbitten skin in snow?
vessels in their skin is very fragile, and the friction snow can easily be damaged, which will exacerbate lesion pattern.Mechanical injury inflicted by snow, scratches - this is an additional factor for infection of the affected skin.
7. recommended if rubbing frostbitten skin alcohol solutions, oils, fats?
Such an approach will not allow for deep forms of destruction: II-IV degree.The untrained eye is often difficult to differentiate the degree of severity of the frostbite.
8. Why can not warm the frostbitten extremities in an open fire, the battery, the heater? sensitivity of the affected tissues is reduced.Possible additional case of skin lesions, but the shape of the thermal burns.
9. How to dress during the cold, to avoid frostbite?
necessary to dress so that the layers of clothing does not fit snugly to each other and left between a layer of air, which are excellent at keeping you warm.Outer clothing should be waterproof and windproof.Shoes should also be tight and dry.When excessive sweating feet is recommended to use warm insoles and woolen socks on bare feet, because they absorb excess moisture and leave the feet dry.
10. Why during frost is not recommended to wear rings on their fingers?
Firstly rings on the fingers often interfere with the normal blood flow, which in frost conditions is very important.Second, the metal cools more quickly in the cold to low temperatures, and thus is potentially a cooling factor.
11. What if "primorazhivanii" skin, mucous in the frozen iron objects?
should be watered with warm but not hot water adhering place, the metal warms up and tear your "contact" with skin.Such wounds are usually not deep.It is necessary to stop the bleeding and disinfect such damage with hydrogen peroxide.Then can be applied to "olazol" "Dermazin" et al. Resources successfully used for the treatment of moist surfaces.To the doctor with this kind of damage it is still necessary to apply.
Dermatologist Kuklin ETC.