Poisoning ( food, mushrooms, alcohol , chemicals ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Acute poisoning belong to the group of diseases in which the outcome depends on the actions that are performed in the first minutes and hours of the disease.A variety of chemicals, the heterogeneity of symptoms, often make it difficult to diagnose and treat the patient's rational choice poisoning.
Assistance poisoned serves several purposes.First, immediate removal of poisons from the body.Secondly, emergency decontamination using poison antidotes.Thirdly, maintaining the functions of the organs and systems of the body that are most damaged by toxins.
Events to remove toxic substances from the body depends on their receipt of ways.
If poisoning substances taken internally, it is obligatory to wash stomach.It is desirable to hold the event in the presence of a physician and with the probe.tubeless frequently used method in the home ( "restaurant" method).But it is necessary to bear in mind that this method has contraindications.It is impossible to wash out the stomach tubeless method, if the poisoni
bowel emptying using enemas and laxatives helps prevent absorption of toxins, which achieved lower GI.
Adsorption poison.The best known and available formulation for this purpose is activated charcoal (carbol).To date, there are more forgiving and safe sorbents such as polisorb, smectite, enterosgel.They can be taken as self-poisoning in the early hours, and under the supervision of a physician for a longer time.
If the poisoning occurred in contact with the poison through the respiratory tract (gas poisoning), the first aid will be in removing the victim in a well-ventilated room.If the poisoning was highly toxic compounds, it is necessary to take off his outer clothing, becauseit can accumulate toxic substances.After contact with toxic substances on the skin for a skin wash.
poison that does not have time to remove from the gastrointestinal tract, is absorbed into the bloodstream.With the blood stream toxic substances spread through the body to fall and damage various organs and organ systems.To remove toxic substances from the bloodstream used method forced diuresis , when using drugs and the introduction of additional liquid enhance renal action to eliminate poisons.This method is used in the intact urinary function, cardio - vascular systems.If the kidney function is used hemodialysis ( «artificial kidney").Apparatus with filters connected to an artery or vein and blood is passed through it.Poisons remain on the filter and clean the blood returned to the patient.If this is not possible, in extreme cases, exchange transfusion is carried out - remove the affected part of the blood and poured odnogrupnuyu donated blood.
Food poisoning can occur when a person eats food contaminated with bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi or toxins.However, not in all cases, after entering the human body such products will develop the disease.Some people are more resistant to it, others suffer heavier.The term "food poisoning" is often used as a synonym for gastroenteritis, although it is not the same thing.Gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and intestines, which may be caused by many factors, one of which is food poisoning.
Call an ambulance immediately or Ride to the hospital, if the food poisoning happened to the child, a pregnant woman, a man with a chronic illness or old age; if the following symptoms appear: blurred vision, difficulty swallowing and speech (perhaps it is botulism).
should seek medical advice if symptoms persist for three days or more, or become more severe if you feel prolonged abdominal cramps.The doctor will determine the causes of food poisoning, exclude from the list of possible diagnoses of serious diseases with the same symptoms, and prescribe treatment.
patient with poisoning needs rest and light diet with restriction of quantity of food eaten.Drink as much liquid as possible, but avoid alcohol, coffee, milk, tea and carbonated drinks.When symptoms of poisoning do not restrain vomiting and diarrhea - is a natural reaction, which allows to deduce toxins from the body.
mushroom poisoning mushroom poisoning
differ from other food poisoning that poisons fungi are poorly soluble.Therefore, despite the common use dishes, deterioration of health can only come from one person, ate the mushroom is tacky.Symptoms depend on the type of poison present in mushrooms.They can be divided into groups of those bodies which they most strongly damage in the body.
1) Hepatotoxicity (affecting the liver) poisons.It fallotoksiny mushroom and pale toadstool.In case of poisoning often comes death due to liver failure.This group include monomethyl gelvelovyh family.The most recognizable of these are representative lines.
2) poisons nephrotoxic (kidney damage).These include orellamin, grizmalin, kortinamin.They contain such fungi as a cobweb and inocybe.
3) cardiotoxicity (heart) poisons.These include muscarine mushroom and red pantherina.
4) neurotoxicity (acting on the brain) poisons.This hallucinogenic mushrooms containing ibotenic acid mikoatropin, muscimol.
5) Poisons acting on the gastro-intestinal tract, are contained in lozhnoopenke and mushrooms.
6) Most fungi cause allergic diseases.
First aid for mushroom poisoning is the decontamination of poison (venom breeding nevsosavsheysya).To do this, carry out gastric lavage solution of soda or a mild solution of potassium permanganate.Then it is recommended to drink the drug with absorbent (suction) properties.Most available activated carbon must be taken at a dose of at least 40-60 g for an adult.
remaining preparations should be taken according to the instructions.You should also take a laxative to cleanse the bowel from the poison.To remove the painful symptoms can take drugs for relief of spasm.For example, no-spa, papaverine.Be sure to consult a doctor, telling him that bind your worsening state of health with the use of fungi.It is necessary to leave a part of the suspect food for examination of fungi, it will facilitate treatment of the patient.
for preventing mushroom poisoning is necessary to observe the following simple rules.
Firstly, only known to collect mushrooms, poisonous mushrooms to know their region.
Second, leave the forest the old, overgrown, maggoty fungi.
Third, it is not necessary to engage in a quiet hunting near roads and railways, large-scale enterprises.Mushrooms are like sponges, absorbing all the heavy metals, toxic substances from the soil.Fourth, do not leave children unattended while gathering mushrooms.Children are curious to try different fungi, and certain poisons for death must be very small.In addition, children are more susceptible to poisoning due to the underdeveloped system of protection against toxins, low weight.
Fifth, do not collect mushrooms in a plastic bag and store them is not processed until the morning.It is a perishable product.To carry out re-inspection and sorting mushrooms mushrooms processing time at home.Remember the cardinal rule mushroom picker: not sure - do not take .
Currently, there is a tendency to reduce food poisoning, but the increase in poisoning by chemicals and drugs.
poisoning acids and alkalis
Poisoning strong acids and alkalis occurs by accident or for the purpose of suicide.
their effect on the body when administered cauterants sum of the mucosa and the resorption (sucking) acids in the blood.At the point of contact of caustic substances with the mucosa of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, develops chemical burn, until the perforation (through penetration).This is manifested by pain in the course of rezchayshimi organs of the gastrointestinal tract, vomiting with blood and gastro-intestinal bleeding.There is a painful shock and jet stenosis (narrowing) of the airways due to spasm and swelling of the latter.This leads to death.Also dangerous is the absorption of corrosive poisons into the blood, leading to kidney and liver failure.
Help the patient may have only a health care team.Prohibited gastric lavage without a probe.Introduction weak alkaline solutions are usually not effective.The concentrated sodium carbonate solution with acid poisoning will cause excessive flatulence and further damage the stomach.In the context of the medical institution in toxicological or intensive care unit (depending on the severity of the patient) is carried out anesthesia, gastric lavage, prescribe antibiotics.If there udushenie- the patient is connected to a respirator, and the therapy to maintain the most affected organ systems.The complication of such poisoning, in addition to violations of the liver and kidneys, it is a stricture (narrowing) of the esophagus, pylorus.At the site of chemical burns, severe scarring formed in violation of the passage of write in the gastrointestinal tract.
potassium permanganate poisoning
Substances with a pronounced cauterizing action also include potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate, potassium permanganate).If ingested in high concentrations, in addition to the above symptoms, it violates the oxygen to the hemoglobin of red blood cells, causing oxygen starvation of the whole organism.
remains relevant topic alcohol poisoning and alcohol substitutes.Symptoms of alcohol poisoning coincide with signs of intoxication and hangover.Ethyl alcohol has a depressant effect on the central nervous system.Feature poisoning them is that it is absorbed quickly their stomach than in the processed body, so poisoning occurs quite rapidly.90% of it is processed by the liver and 10% is excreted in the breath and through the skin.On removing it from the body requires up to 12 hours.Treatment of poisoning by ethyl alcohol is gastric lavage, forced diuresis organizations and other detoxification activities.
heavier pattern develops at a poisoning with methanol, also called methyl alcohol or wood.It is almost indistinguishable from ethyl alcohol to taste and smell, but it is much more toxic.It causes only mild intoxication.The first symptoms of methanol poisoning are vision disorders.This manifests itself in symptoms such as flicker flies before his eyes, lack of clarity of vision up to blindness to the sharp expansion of the pupils and the absence of reaction to light.
Later, pain in the head and legs, impaired heart function, there is confusion and sometimes reactive excitation and convulsions.
Treatment consists of gastric lavage and bowel cleansing, as the appointment of an antidote ethanol into or, in severe cases, intravenous, forced diuresis.If necessary - blood purification using the apparatus "artificial kidney".
alcohol Surrogates just dangerous because they contain traces of methyl alcohol and formic and other carbonyl compounds.Therefore they are 1.5-2 times more toxic than ethanol and deadly for the body.
From drugs most often occurs poisoning sleeping pills, tranquilizers, neuroleptic drugs from the group of barbiturates.They inhibit the action of the central nervous system.Coma develops gradually, starting from sleep to coma with no reaction to external stimuli and atony (impotence) muscles.This leads to a disruption of breathing and heart function.In a depression can occur aspiration (casting) of stomach contents into the airway to the development of pneumonia (pneumonia).Treatment consists in efforts to eliminate the poison from the body, the unconscious - bedsore prevention.
Poisoning with gasoline, it may be in contact with the substance to the airways or extensive areas of the skin.Emerging symptoms similar to intoxication, and are characterized by agitation, dizziness, nausea and vomiting.In severe cases, it may be loss of consciousness and seizures.When injected into the gastrointestinal tract, pain in the abdomen, diarrhea mixed with blood, and liver dysfunction.Treatment is done only under medical supervision and is to maintain the functions of the affected organs.
All the more common chlorine poisoning.They often occur in the home, by mixing chlorine and alkaline detergents.Clinically chlorine poisoning manifested burns of the upper respiratory tract with a reflex inhibition of the respiratory center.In less severe cases, the person feels pain in the eyes, watery eyes, painful cough, headache.There is a failure of the respiratory system in the form of acute pulmonary emphysema and acute pneumonia.In the treatment of used oxygen inhalation, antibiotics, inhalation anesthetics and soda solution.
Carbon monoxide poisoning
From the group of inhalation poisoning stand out carbon monoxide poisoning.It is formed by incomplete combustion of flammable substances in the condition of lack of oxygen.With the rapid poisoning develops loss of consciousness, convulsions, dilated pupils, and cyanosis of the skin.With the gradual poisoning of a headache, tinnitus, dizziness, watery eyes, visual and auditory hallucinations, motor paralysis (immobilization) with preservation of consciousness.The main attack takes on the nervous, respiratory and cardio - vascular system.First aid consists in removing the victim from the polluted area, abundant oxygen inhalation in hospital.In case of violation of breathing of the patient is connected to a ventilator.
in life is easy to obtain poisoning.Be attentive to yourself and loved ones.
therapists Nalivaykina Anna M.