Broken arm - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
hand (upper extremity) - this is the body structure which largely distinguishes us from other animals and allows to work, develop, relax and enjoy life.Therefore it is very important to the proper fracture healing hands and maximum recovery functionality.
Fractures hands combined in himself: fractures of the humerus, forearm fractures, fractures in the elbow joint, and wrist fractures, and fingers.These areas can be damaged both separately and conjugate, with significant traumatic impact.The most frequent occurrence - it is a fracture of the radius in a typical place, surgical neck fracture of the shoulder, fracture of the metacarpal bones of the hand and finger fractures.
fracture for fracture hand show common fractures symptoms:
• Pain at the fracture site may be given to the neighboring region, for example, the pain of fractures in the elbow givesin the forearm and shoulder.Pain is a strong character, its intensity increases sharply when moving and creating
• Swelling and bruising .This symptom is also found in any of the hand fractures.Edema is usually very pronounced in fractures of the hand, fingers, the elbow joint.
• Deformation and shortening damaged segment is marked in fractures with displacement, often visible in fractures of the humerus and forearm fractures.
• limited movement in joints near the fracture site.So, at the turn of the radial bone in a typical place, they will be limited movement at the wrist joint, and fracture of the humerus - the shoulder and the elbow.
• crunch of bone fragments .The symptom is not always typical for shoulder fracture of the olecranon.
• When nerve damage , at the time of fracture, can occur paralysis of the hands and fingers, violation of sensitivity.The nerves most commonly damaged by fracture of the humerus.
More details about the symptoms specific to each area of damage hand, can be read in some articles on our site.
first aid for suspected broken arm
At the turn of the hand, and it is suspected, the main task - it immobilize the damaged segment and the neighboring joints .Immobilization (immobilization) is achieved by applying a tire from improvised materials, fit boards, strong rods, flat stick.Found pribintovyvayut structure to the damaged segment of the hands and provide its property as a result, reduces pain and prevents the fragments.
the unprepared person may experience difficulty in securing the immobility of the shoulder and elbow joints.Therefore, in order not to harm and not to cause unnecessary suffering, it is better to confine suspending hands on a headscarf.
When fractures of fingers for tire manufacturing, you can use a comb or nail file can also be corrupted to bandage the finger to an adjacent finger.You can not try to "force" to align the damaged segment of hands, try something on their own to reduce a, etc., if you are not confident in their knowledge, enough to hang on the damaged hand kerchief.
Immobilization hand fracture
Analgesia. You can use any anesthetic agent, which is in the home medicine cabinet (ketorolac, analgin, aspirin, nimesulide, etc.).It is important to remember - if you are not sure that the medicine is an analgesic, or have not met with him previously, it is not necessary to engage in self-treatment, it is better to wait for the arrival of emergency medical services.
Fractures of the hand, especially fractures of the wrist and fingers, often accompanied by swelling of the fingers.To prevent the growth of edema and necrosis finger better in the first few minutes to get rid of rings and other jewelry on the affected arm.But do not try to own skusit ring at the failure of his removal.For a couple of hours on the edematous finger it does not hurt, but in the ward specialist will help you to remove it more intelligently and painlessly.
Open fractures are accompanied bleeding. Keep in mind that overlay harness is only necessary when the arterial bleeding from large arteries (bleeding will bear abundant and pulsating character, bright scarlet blood).In other cases, the imposition of sufficiently tight bandage.
Diagnostics hand fracture
Symptoms typical of fractures of the hand, may appear bruises, injuries and sprains ligament apparatus, so X-ray is used for diagnosis.Very rarely (if unclear diagnosis) requires a computer tomography.When nerve damage may require inspection neurologist.
Treatment of a broken arm broken arm
without displacement heal by laying plaster tires or circular cast.For fractures of the shoulder plaster is applied from "pits" at the base of the toes to the sound of the blade.Fractures of the forearm and elbow areas require the overlay of gypsum from the "seed" to the upper or middle third of the shoulder.Fracture of the radial bone in a typical place - from the "seed" to the upper third of the forearm.The same applied plaster in fractures of bones of the hand, sometimes with finger grip.Currently in fractures of fingers instead of using special plaster immobilized tires.
wearing Terms of gypsum are also different.Shoulder Fracture - 6-8 weeks, fractured forearm 6-8 weeks, fracture of the radial bone in a typical place - 4 weeks, broken metacarpal bones - 3-4 weeks, broken fingers - 3-4 weeks.
When fractures with displacement perform fracture reduction and put plaster on the same period of 1-2 weeks or more.
Fractures with a lot of debris, open fractures and nevpravimye operate and set various metal: needles, screws, plates and rods.In the future also applied plaster.Screws and needles are removed after a few months or years after the injury.For fractures of the shoulder can be used skeletal traction for fracture reduction and retain for a period of 3-4 weeks.After stretching and applied a plaster cast.
From drugs for fractures of the hand are used: calcium supplements (Calcemin), painkillers (ketorol, nimesulide), various anti-inflammatory ointment (ultrafastin, Fastum gel, ketoprofen, etc.).
rehabilitation after a broken arm
After the first component of the treatment of fractures of the hand - setting and retention of bone fragments in the correct position to begin rehabilitation.Rehabilitation includes: physiotherapy, remedial gymnastics and gymnastics, massage, occupational therapy.
After 2-3 days from the date of injury proceed to active movement in his good hand, to the movements in the "not plastered joints" and fingers.
From the first 3-10 days after injury can be assigned:
• Interference currents .This type of physiotherapy aims to reduce swelling and pain.(Course of 6-10 sessions)
• Ultraviolet radiation healthy limb on a symmetrical section.Reflex is achieved by improving the blood circulation to the fracture site (course of 6-10 sessions).
From the same period, proceed to isotonic (without performing movements) muscle tension in the affected extremity.
After 2 weeks from the time of injury, and after removal of plaster appointed:
• Magnetic .The action of magnetic field improves blood circulation, reduces swelling, accelerates fracture healing, promotes the rapid development of movements.
• Laser .The therapeutic effect by improving microcirculation and reduce inflammation at the site of the fracture.
• UHF .The electric field of high chastotytakzhe helps relieve edema, reduce inflammation and pain.
• Ultrasound .With the help of ultrasound can be delivered to a variety of therapeutic agents in place a defeat, for example, hydrocortisone ointment, which has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.
• electrophoresis solution novocaine , has analgesic effect.
All procedures are assigned complex and selected individually.The number of sessions can vary from 6 to 15 or more treatments.
At a later period, after removing the plaster and remove inflammation assigned mud, paraffin baths, baths with sea salt, pine baths.The main objective of these procedures is to improve the development of motion in joints and to strengthen the weakened muscles under the cast.Also, mud and salt baths help to improve blood circulation and quick recovery of the affected arm and body as a whole.
After removing the plaster, along with physiotherapy, remedial gymnastics are active.Exercises are done with a focus on the most affected joint.At the turn of the shoulder will have to actively develop the shoulder joint, with a broken forearm and the elbow - the elbow.At the turn of the hand bones and radial bone in a typical place - carpal joints and knuckles.Each exercise should be performed for 10-15 reps, 3-4 times a day.With increasing pain need to take a break or apply anti-inflammatory ointments, load increase should be gradual, with no sudden movements and transitions.For a more effective impact on the joints and the rapid development of the muscles, the exercises must be performed in water, it is better in the sea.
set of exercises for each of the joints of the hands are considered in separate articles on our site:
development of the shoulder joint, elbow joint development, the development of the wrist joint, the development of the hand and finger joints.
important component of rehabilitation treatment is massage.Massage should be done carefully, since an intact segment of hands.Only after 6-10 weeks after injury may be a gentle massage fractured segment muscle, and after a good callus formation (healing of fractures) may be the implementation of more active massage movements.
the purposes of occupational therapy applies: crafts (knitting, embroidery, painting), non-severe working in the garden or on the site, as well as small domestic work.Occupational therapy - this is the last stage of the return to normal life and the full restoration of hand function.
Prognosis and treatment time hands
fracture General terms of treatment, including rehabilitation, for a variety of hand ranges.At the turn of the surgical neck shoulder hand function virtually restored in 2-3 months, the body of the humerus - 3-4 months, fractures of the forearm bones (ulna and radius) - 2-3 months, radial bone in a typical place - 1-2 months, fractureshand bones - 1-3 months, the navicular bone - 3-6 months, broken fingers - about 1 month.In the presence of contractures (movement restrictions) joints and open fractures treatment time significantly increases and reaches 6 months or more.And when nerve damage or the presence of infection in the bone treatment can be delayed for years.
trauma surgeon Varanovich NA