Sprains - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Emergencies

sprain is a mild degree of traumatic injuries, the cause of which is a sudden movement in the joint, accompanied by total or partial rupture of the bag or periarticular ligament apparatus.

mechanism of formation stretching


sprains characteristic symptom when sprain is severe pain when moving.Also, there is swelling, skin coloring in blue or purple color (hematoma), pain on palpation.joint functions are limited because of the pain.When tapping finger bones (percussion), which are involved in the formation of the affected joint, pain is negligible or non-existent.More severe damage can lead to rupture of ligaments, causing extensive hematoma, until the appearance of fluctuations (the feeling of fluid motion palpation stretching space).

sprain of the acromioclavicular joint is a consequence of a fall or a direct blow to the shoulder top.It is characterized by pain and increased sensitivity of the skin over the outer end of the collarbone.Pain aggravated by movement of the hand across t

he body.

Stretching sternoclavicular joint may occur when you fall on an outstretched hand.For this type of injury is characterized by pain at the injury site.With a stronger impact on the joint deformity occurs at the junction of the clavicle to the sternum.

Stretching wrist ligaments may occur with a sharp wrist extension.It is characterized by acute diffuse pain at the time of injury (most of the wrist joint), very fast (within 1 hour) increase of swelling in the damaged site, limiting the volume of motor movements, inability to capture the affected arm and joint instability of the subject.

sprain of the knee joint .The reason for its occurrence can be a direct blow or twisting.It is characterized by pain that occurs at the time of injury.The pain gradually goes away when you try to motion in the knee joint reappears.Also, there is swelling, stiffness and sensitivity on the inner side of the joint.

Stretching of the anterior cruciate ligament occurs when an unexpected powerful twisting the hips, especially when the lower leg is fixed (for example, the players spike embedded in the ground, and the body takes place at the time).It is characterized by symptoms such as acute pain and crackling at the time the damage (a person has a sense of "razvalivanie" knee).This joint function is impaired in full, there is its instability.After 1-2 hours, edema, which gradually progresses.

Sprains Ankle joint.Most often, it develops when tucking foot.Also, the reason for its occurrence can serve as landing on the leg of another person (for example, during sports games).Typical symptoms are mild pain and the inability to produce movement in the joint.

degree of stretching

are 3 degrees of stretching ligament apparatus:

I degree - characterized by damage to the small ligaments site.It is characterized by ill-defined pain.In this movement in the joints are not particularly limited, and not necessarily the presence of edema.
II degree - characterized by a small bunch of anguish.Characterized by swelling, pain, frequent occurrence of hematoma.
III degree - the most severe sprain.In this case, a bunch of torn almost completely.Characterized by severe pain, swelling, pronounced bruising.Motor function is limited due to severe pain.Perhaps the formation of an unstable joint, which entails frequent repetitive damage.

Degrees sprains

First Aid and diagnostics

sprains If you receive a similar injury to the fault must be applied cold and, if possible, immobilize it.Next, contact a medical facility for skilled care.

First aid for sprains

diagnose sprain possible only by means of anamnesis (presence of injuries) and damage symptoms, since x-ray did not reveal any abnormalities.However, X-ray needs to be done to eliminate the possibility of bone fracture or dislocation of the joint.

Visually accurately distinguish a sprain from a fracture or dislocation can not be so self unacceptable, and seek medical attention for x-ray is necessary.

stretching ligaments Treatment

high regenerative ability ligament fibers promotes good zazhivlyaemosti wound surfaces ligaments.Treatment tensile cords, primarily, consists in immobilizing the damaged portion.In other words, you need to create peace for him.In the first few hours after sprains topically applied cold.The cold prevents the development of edema or reduces it reduces pain.Bubbles or ice packs (preferably special pharmacies) should be removed for 30 minutes every 2 - 3 hours in order to avoid frostbite.

When severe pain is possible to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, febrovid, heparin (ointment), artradol (injection), naproxen, ketorolac, and so on.).

On the injury bandage, preferably a pressure (elastic bandage), which is in the hospital was replaced with plaster if necessary.

When the swelling subsides, your doctor may prescribe physiotherapy.On the third day, you can use physical therapy treatments, such as UHF, teploprotsedury (ozocerite baths), electrophoresis with analgesic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory drugs.This can be procaine, heparin, antimicrobials.

On the fifth to seventh day, you can assign an ultrasound treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs (Luzon), biostimulants (ointment mummy), painkillers (mobilat).

If there is damage to the ankle joint with swelling, pain and blood disorder that is contraindicated hydrotherapy, as bathtubs, whirlpool and saunas.The fact that they increase the blood flow to the site of injury, and this leads to increased pain.In this case it is advisable to use ozokerite and paraffin as applications.

If damaged elbow, the thermotherapy should not be used in order to avoid complications such as myositis and violation of joint mobility.It is better to apply ice in the form of applications and isotonic movements.Later, you can use electrophoresis and phonophoresis.

Generally, treatment is outpatient.Victim remains disabled during 1-4 weeks, depending on the degree of stretching.

Rehabilitation after

sprain rehabilitation measures begin to spend the first days after the injury, to prevent the development of physical inactivity, as well as for the early recovery of lost functions.

Use physiotherapy (physical therapy), massage, occupational therapy.

objectives LFK are:

  • increasing vitality of the victim;
  • improving cardiovascular function and respiratory systems;
  • prevention of complications;
  • adaptation of all systems of the body to physical activity;
  • strengthening blood and lymph circulation in the damaged area to simulate the recovery process;
  • prevention of muscle wasting and stiffness of the joints.

Of the funds LFK prefer physiotherapist.It includes:

  • breathing exercises (static, dynamic);
  • exercises to strengthen the muscular system (slopes, turns, half-twist);
  • exercises for a healthy limb (active movement in all joints, isometric exercises).

to the injured limb using static exercises (limb retention), isometric exercises, disposal and reduction, as well as active movements in healthy joints, which helps to activate blood circulation and recovery processes.

load is prescribed depending on the stage of rehabilitation - from easy to more difficult.load increase occurs by increasing the amount of exercise, their dosage and number of repetitions.Gradually add exercise coordination and balance.

The recovery period may be a problem, as the limitation of motion in the joint, as well as reducing the level of endurance.Based on this, the main task of the recovery period is renewed impaired function and the patient's health.

Massage administered on the second day after stretching.It should be done very carefully so as not to cause pain to the victim, because in both cases can provoke deterioration of state of the injured area.

In the early course of massage is done just above the affected area.The suction massage (to remove edema) make 1-2 times a day on average 10 minutes.With the gradual transition to the injured portion of the duration of massage is increased to 15 minutes.

Occupational therapy is widely used to return the person to their employment duties.To do this, use the exercise as close to professional activity rehabilitated.

return disability criterion is a good range of motion in the injured joint, as well as the quality of household tasks (self-service).

When correctly selected treatment and rehabilitation course prognosis of any degree of stretching is beneficial.

Ed.doctor traumatologist Savchenko VR