Cystoscopy - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Cystoscopy - this is the endoscopic method of investigation of the bladder and urethra, which is the examination of the mucous membranes of these organs with a special optical system.To date, there are two kinds of cystoscopy: tough and agile.When working directly with the first urologist examines the urinary tract, and during the application of the second image appears on the monitor screen.
Cystoscopy rigid machine
Cystoscopy computer cystoscope
indications for the procedure cystoscopy
cystoscope can not be considered a routine method of investigation, because it is much more painful, unpleasant and expensive than, for example, ultrasoundkidney and bladder.But, despite this, it is widely applied in urology, and has a considerable list of indications.
cystoscopy is performed to identify the site of bleeding If hematuria (blood in the urine allocation).Even if during the inspection of the mucosa and will not be revealed source of bleeding, then it can be argued that it is in the kidney o
If you have a third-party body in a cavity of the bladder cystoscopy is a "gold standard" diagnostic.The fact that by using this method it is possible not only to accurately determine the size and nature of the obstacle, but also to solve the problem with the patient's treatment.For example, for small third-party body with smooth contours and edges, they can be removed naturally by the same cystoscope.
With the same aim of cystoscopy is performed, and if you suspect the presence of calculus in the cavity of the bladder, which in medicine is called urolithiasis.As well as with third-party bodies, with urolithiasis cystoscopy may be one of the treatments.
Traumatic injuries of the urethra and bladder are absolute indications for cystoscopy.With this method it is possible to diagnose the size and position of the breaks and bruises urethral mucosa and bladder.
Another absolute indication for cystoscopy should be considered as cancer of the bladder and urethra.In fact, for the diagnosis of this disease at the time and this method has been developed.
Contraindications to cystoscopy
Contraindications to this diagnostic method is divided into local and general.First, the local contraindications include inflammatory diseases of the bladder and urethra, such as cystitis and urethritis.During the cystoscopy mucosa of these organs amenable to further trauma, which leads to an exacerbation of the inflammatory process.So, before you assign such a procedure is necessary to carry out the whole range of laboratory tests for detection of inflammation.
With regard to general contraindications, that these include the serious diseases of internal organs in the stage of decompensation.For example, the performance of cystoscopy in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency threatens deterioration of general clinical condition.This method of investigation is also not recommended for people in old age, who have a cardiovascular problem.Strongly procedure is contraindicated in patients with myocardial infarction.Because the disease can occur in a painless form, all patients who are scheduled to perform a cystoscopy, is necessary to perform electrocardiography.
The list of contraindications to cystoscopy became more and pregnancy.Because the bladder is in close proximity to the uterus, then perform various manipulations on it can damage reproductive organ wall, which can result in even miscarriage.Therefore, during pregnancy is better to use more sparing methods, such as excretory urography or ultrasound.
Preparations for cystoscopy cystoscopy
Conducting face entering the bladder pathogenic infection.The probability of this complication depends on the purity of the external genital organs of the patient, and the sterility of medical instruments.If the last patient will not be able to influence, to ensure the purity of his genitals, he simply must.This makes it useful for not only the doctor but also to yourself.
addition, in everyday life there is an opinion that it is necessary to fill your bladder prior to cystoscopy.How to tell us the medical practice and theory, to do this is not absolutely necessary.Naturally, the quality of cystoscopy for the bladder must be full, but nothing terrible will happen if the patient comes to the procedure before this help.The fact that the doctor himself can fill the bladder after it enters the cystoscope.
To reduce pain during cystoscopy urethra katezhel drug is administered.Naturally, an expensive drug is not given to patients free of charge, which means that it must be purchased.To carry out extra trips to the pharmacy to buy medication better before visiting cystoscopic study.
Cystoscopy eyes patient
If you look at the conduct of the procedure to the patient, it will turn out not very pleasant picture as often manipulation gives a lot of unpleasant and even painful sensations.
At the very beginning of the procedure the patient is laid on the couch and he made skin treatment of external genital organs.This is done in order to reduce the risk of infection to the bladder.
After that, the urethra, with a special pipette usual drug katezhel.This is done in order to improve the sliding of the device along the urethra and reduce the pain of the patient.
next step in carrying out the procedure is the introduction of the cystoscope.At this point it affects katezhelya analgesic effect, so the patient does not feel any discomfort.Further, when performing manipulations in the cavity of the bladder, the patient may even feel severe pain in the abdomen, to which must be prepared in advance.
Ends extraction procedure cystoscope from the cavity of the bladder.Usually, at this point the patient is experiencing a sharp relief.After about two hours, when is the effect of painkillers, the pain may return.But in this situation, they are localized in the projection of the urethra, and are not sharp, and aching in nature.
Action doctor during cystoscopy
Cystoscopy is exclusively medical manipulation and holding her nurse is absolutely unacceptable.Depending on the type cystoscope, after its introduction urologist examines bladder mucosa into the opening in the optical device or monitor.At this time, he must identify all the pathological education that are available in this anatomical area.It is desirable that this be done as quickly as possible, because, as has been said, the manipulation device in the cavity of the bladder is delivered to the patient discomfort.
duration of the procedure and the length of stay in hospital length
cystoscopy, as a variety of other medical procedures, depending on the disease, the type of machine and qualification of the expert.For example, it will take no more than five minutes to explore the normal mucosa of the bladder and urethra.If we add to this the time for another five minutes to prepare for the procedure, it turns out that in the best case, from beginning to end, it takes no more than ten minutes.If manipulation is performed, for example, to comply with ureteral catheterization, it can last for about an hour.Even if in this time no scheduled medical procedures until the end, it is not recommended to continue to be made, since this can result in damage to the urethral mucosa.In addition, you must remember and discomfort that a patient experiences.
residence time in the hospital before and after the procedure is not determined by the manipulation itself, and disease, which obliged the doctor to perform the procedure.If the results of the diagnosis is not revealed any pathological condition, the patient can go home the same day.
Possible complications during cystoscopy
The most common complication of cystoscopy is an infection in the bladder cavity.As already mentioned, the reason for this is the lack of hygiene of the external genitalia or non-sterile medical instruments.As practice shows, often against this background developing cystitis, which is manifested minor abdominal pain and frequent urination.In addition, the urine of the patient may appear slight amount of blood, which is the cause of the erosion of the bladder mucosa.
addition, quite often marked and traumatic complications of cystoscopy.The most difficult place for the introduction of the cystoscope is considered urethra at the prostate level.There urethra makes physiological bending, so for normal its passage is necessary to correctly set the tube cystoscope.It is especially difficult to perform cystoscopy with this disease like prostate adenoma.Therefore, it is in older patients most commonly observed complications such as traumatic ruptures cystoscopy urethra.
not so common, but more dangerous complication during cystoscopy is a bladder perforation.It is a wall punctured his body with urine outflow beyond.As practice shows, this occurs when a mucosal biopsy of the bladder.When the fence histological material urologist can not calculate the insertion depth of the needle accidentally pierced the wall of the bladder.Special hazards such complication is that it is not always possible to diagnose at the time of occurrence.Quite often hidden perforations which are identified only after suppuration occurs retroperitoneal adipose tissue or tissue of the pelvic cavity.
With proper conduct of procedure, minimal risk of complications.
Ed.urologist, sexologist-andrologist Plotnikov AN