Ophthalmoscopy ( fundus examination ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Diagnosis In Ophthalmology

Ophthalmoscopy - research method to examine the inside of the eyeball, ieexamine the fundus, by using a special device - ophthalmoscope.With ophthalmoscopy method manages to carefully examine the retina and placed in it the structure: macular region, the central region of the retina, optic disc, retinal vessels;and choroid.

ophthalmoscopy There are two types: direct and inverse.For ophthalmoscopy inverted use an ophthalmoscope and 2 magnifying glass (14 diopters or 30 diopters).For direct ophthalmoscopy is used only without the use of an ophthalmoscope loop.feedback from direct ophthalmoscopy difference is that the reverse ophthalmoscopy fundus picture is presented in inverted form verhnayaya of the fundus of the eye is visible to the doctor the bottom and right side of the fundus of the eye is visible on the left side of the doctor.To carry out a reverse ophthalmoscopy can be used as a mirror and electric ophthalmoscope and direct - only electric.

Indications ophthalmoscopy

Any examination accompan

ied by an ophthalmologist ophthalmoscopy.Fundus examination is an extremely important step in the eye examination.Choosing this type of research method depends on the expected pathology.Thus, various education or bleeding in the retina, macular pathology in her area, retinal detachment, and subtle changes in the optic nerve are better seen with direct ophthalmoscopy.A preferred indirect ophthalmoscopy with retinopathy of prematurity, retinal degeneration and any other changes in the peripheral retina, requiring a broad overview.Selecting lens power feedback during ophthalmoscopy also depends on the pathology.Since the lens power of 14 diopters preferably during the inspection of the optic nerve and macular area and 30 diopters - when viewed from the peripheral parts of the fundus.

contraindications in this method, there is no survey.


procedure to perform the ophthalmoscopy no training is required.But for the most thorough examination of the periphery of the fundus of the eye requires the prior expansion of the pupil, which is achieved by instillation of 1% solution tropicamide 15 minutes prior to the study or the 0.5% solution ratsiklopentolata.

methodology of direct ophthalmoscopy.

patient sits on a chair in a dark room.The doctor sits down across from him.Then, putting his eye to the ophthalmoscope, and illuminating beam of light studied the patient's eye, the doctor begins to approach the last as long as does not see a clear picture of the fundus.The distance between the ophthalmoscope and the investigated eye should be no more than 4 cm, but this method has a small flaw -. During the inspection can be seen only a small area of ​​the fundus, so the doctor will guide the patient's eye in order to fully explore the fundus, including its peripheraldepartments.

Methodology of indirect ophthalmoscopy.

survey also carried out in a dark room.The patient sits on a chair.Left and posterior to the patient several lamp should be placed, the patient should be in the shade.The doctor sits down in front of the patient, at arm's length, brings to his eye ophthalmoscope, directing a beam of light reflected from the mirror to the area of ​​the pupil.At the same time the pupil begins to glow red.Then the doctor puts a patient's eye to the test a lenticular lens.On examination, the loop is located at a distance of 7-8 cm from the study eye.This method is particularly effective when viewed from the fundus in a person having a cataract in the ripening stage.When using electric ophthalmoscope light is not required.

Whenever a patient ophthalmoscopy, both eyes must be opened.
During the study, the physician must examine the different parts of the retina, which requires a certain position of the eyeball, in this regard, he will manage the position of the patient eye.Ophthalmoscopy performed in a specific order: first, the doctor examines the area of ​​the optic nerve, then the central region of the retina and in the last instance - the periphery of the fundus.So, to inspect the area of ​​the optic nerve in his right eye examination, the patient must look at the right ear doctor, when viewed from the left eye, respectively - on the left ear.

The normal optic disc round or oval-shaped, pale pink in color, with clear contours.From the center of the disc goes artery and vein are included.Value kolibraartery and veins in a healthy eye is 2: 3.With the city's central area of ​​the retina patient should look straight into the ophthalmoscope.In the center of the fundus in a red oval is the macula (or yellow spot), bordered by bands of light (macular reflex) in the center of it is the central fovea of ​​the retina corresponding to the foveal reflex.With the city's peripheral part setchatkivrach ask the patient to look in 8 directions: Up, Up, Left, Left, Down, Left, Down, Down, Right, Right, Up-right;for this you must be sure to pre-expand the pupil.

ophthalmoscopy procedure takes an average of 5-10 minutes.

should be noted that during the inspection the patient may experience some discomfort in the eyes due to the bright light of the ophthalmoscope, and immediately after the examination for some time before the patient can see through the eyes of different spots.If the patient has been expanded pupil, then sit behind the wheel it can not be for 2-3 hours after the examination, in addition, at the exit to the street to a man, it is desirable to wear sunglasses, becausedilated pupil causes severe discomfort when looking at the light.

on medicines may cause allergic reactions.

Ophthalmologist Odnoochko EA