Angiography - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
What is Angiography?
Angiography - a method of research of the blood vessels using x-rays.With this method it is possible to identify the luminal narrowing of blood vessels (as a result of occlusion by thrombus or atherosclerotic plaque), their expansion in aneurysms, and various malformations (tortuous course or king King, hemangiomas), virtually all vascular beds in the body (near, brain, abdomen, upper and lower extremities).If carried out a study of the arteries, it is called arteriography, if we study the veins, it is called venography.
To obtain an image at the expense of X-rays is injected rengenokontrastnoe substance through a special flexible tube, called a catheter, which is inserted into an artery or vein in a certain point.Typically, the catheter is inserted into the femoral artery or vein in the groin, but sometimes research can be conducted, and through access to the ulnar artery and vein, and less through access other sites.Injected contrast is distributed through the vessel and then
Performing angiography can be recommended to you in the following case:
1) Atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta and its main branches of the peripheral, coronary arteries.
2) Expansion of the arteries, called aneurysms.
3) renal artery lesions.
4) aortic disease and its branches.
5) Malformations of the arterial and venous vessels.
6) Deep vein thrombosis, or the formation of a blood clot in the pulmonary artery, called pulmonary embolism.
How to prepare for the study?
Before performing angiography you must necessarily be made a general analysis of blood and determination of parameters of blood coagulation and biochemical blood tests to assess kidney function.Depending on the results of research you will be given the appropriate instructions, in particular, can be temporarily canceled by aspirin or other drugs that reduce blood clotting, and you will be told what medications you should continue to take.Usually 6 hours before angiography is not recommended anything to drink or eat.But depending on comorbidities, such as kidney disease, you may be advised to use a larger quantity of liquid or intravenously introduced a certain amount of liquid, and assigned special medicine.If you have a tendency to develop allergic reactions and, in particular components of the contrast, iodine, then in order to reduce the risk of allergic reaction you might also be given appropriate medication.After investigation, the vascular surgeon recommends you the most suitable treatment for you.
What complications can arise during angiography?
Disorders of blood coagulation, renal dysfunction, obesity and old age are associated with an increase in the risk of complications during and after the angiography.Also, there is a risk of allergic reactions to the contrast agent.Increasing the amount of fluids before and after angiography can result in the progression of heart failure in patients with reduced myocardial contractile function (chronic heart failure).
What happens during the execution of angiography?
study is conducted in a specially equipped office with X-ray machines.The doctor chooses the place through which the catheter is introduced for angiography.Usually, angiography is performed through the groin to access the femoral artery and vein.Prior to the introduction of the catheter, your skin will be treated with an antiseptic solution in order to reduce the risk of infection.Further held local anesthesia (administering anesthetic subcutaneously and intramuscularly at the puncture site of the vessel), then held a special needle puncture of the vessel, then held the catheter to the desired vessel, and then introduced a special radiopaque substance.Movement of the catheter on the LCD monitor during fluoroscopy.
When the catheter reaches the desired vascular pool, when introduced rentegnokontrastnoe substance, due to which by means of X-rays, we can get an image on the computer screen.During the administration of the contrast You can feel the heat with the spread of the contrast agent on the circulatory system.During the examination, the doctor may ask you to hold your breath for 5-15 seconds.At the same time, the study should be to lie still as a sudden movement can distort obtained by X-ray image.
After the study, the catheter is removed, and within 10-20 minutes required to place a strong compression vascular puncture to stop bleeding.
Angiography usually lasts about an hour.A more long-term study of passes during the angioplasty and stenting.
What should you do after angiography?
After the study within 6 hours, you will be under the supervision of medical personnel.At the same time you have to be in this position (with straight limbs) to minimize the risk of bleeding from the place of vascular puncture.After the bleeding is stopped and normal values of vital functions Your doctor will allow you to get up.After discharge from the hospital, which is usually the next day, at home, you can eat normal food, but do not use a large amount of fluid in 1-2 days.At the same time when the kidney function you will be advised to drink plenty of fluids.After angiography, you should avoid heavy physical activity, such as driving a car, a lot of walking.For normal physical activity, you can return within 1-2 days.
What complications arise after angiography?
complications after angiography may include: bleeding, pain, swelling at the injection catheter.Cooling and blue limbs may be a sign of bleeding or thrombosis punctured vessel.Hematoma (bruise) at the puncture site of the vessel - this is normal, but increase its size may be indicative of continued bleeding.Rarely during angiography may impair kidney function and progression of renal failure, especially if the patient already has kidney disease.Also, allergic reactions to the contrast agent.We should not forget that the possible increase in heart failure, which is manifested by shortness of breath.In addition, during angiography possible injury vascular, stroke, and myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrhythmias.