Obstetric examination in pregnancy - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
In most cases, a woman learns of her pregnancy, making a home pregnancy test on the background of menstruation.If the test was positive, you should consult an obstetrician-gynecologist and to register for pregnancy as early as possible.If you are not sure that you are pregnant, but the test results at the same dubious and menstruation does not occur, then it is also a reason to visit the doctor.
Why do I need to register for pregnancy as early as possible?In order to prevent a variety of diseases, which are possible in the early stages.We should not forget that the most dangerous complication of pregnancy - miscarriage, occurs precisely in the early stages.Therefore, the sooner the expectant mother begins to be surveyed, the better for her and for the baby.Consequently, on account of pregnancy is necessary to get up to 12 weeks.
During his first visit to the obstetrician-gynecologist get ready for a detailed medical interview.It is necessary to remember the date of the last menstrual period, and it wa
Be sure to tell your doctor about past illnesses.This is true not only of gynecological diseases, and chronic diseases of a systemic nature.The most important in the collection of history attached to the diseases of the endocrine system, heart disease, kidney disease, and infections of the sexual sphere.Based on the state of health of the pregnant woman, the gynecologist may prescribe additional tests with other specialists.
Also on the first reception held at the gynecological examination chair.It measures the blood pressure of a pregnant, height, weight.With a tape measure the circumference of the abdomen, the height of standing uterus above the symphysis pubis.In addition, be sure the size of the pelvis meryat special tool - tazomera.
pelvic dimensions are essential during childbirth.Based on these dimensions can predict the occurrence of any obstacles and complications during the passage of the baby through the birth canal at the crucial moment.
Measuring blood pressure, weight and waist circumference necessarily spent at each doctor visit throughout the pregnancy.From about the 20th week of pregnancy at each visit the doctor listens to the fetal heartbeat with a special tube - obstetric stethoscope, which is applied to the bare pregnant belly.
For a general survey of all pregnant (! Without exception) is required to appoint the following tests and examinations:
- Urinalysis most "popular" analysis during pregnancy.His pass before each visit to a gynecologist (usually 2 times a month).This analysis reflects the state of the genitourinary system pregnant;
- Complete blood count surrenders during pregnancy at least 4 times.Normally during pregnancy may be a slight decrease in hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells;
- Biochemical analysis of blood during pregnancy is dealt at least 3 times;
- Coagulation (analysis of blood coagulation and hemostasis) surrenders 3 times in each trimester of pregnancy;
- A blood test for HIV, hepatitis and syphilis surrenders 3 times;
- Determination of blood group and Rh factor is determined once immediately after the statement on the account;
- Blood test for TORCH infections (rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and toxoplasmosis).Despite the high cost of research, this analysis must pass necessarily, because it TORCH infections can lead to intrauterine infection of the fetus, and, as a consequence, to his death;
- Smear on the flora of the vagina and smear cytology (scraping from the cervix) dealt once, usually when you first visit a gynecologist ;.
- Ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs (ultrasound).If the pregnancy is normal, ultrasound should be done no more than 3 times during pregnancy -x.
first ultrasound is performed at time of 10-12 weeks.Some pregnant women prefer to do it ahead of time, but if there are serious indications (spotting, abdominal pain) do ultrasound at an earlier timing is inappropriate.The first ultrasound will tell you, in general terms, as the pregnancy proceeds, to determine the time of pregnancy and childbirth.
second ultrasound makes on a period of 20-24 weeks.At this period, you can determine the sex of the baby, to see the development of the internal organs, to identify fetal malformations (if available).
third and final ultrasound is performed at time of 32-34 weeks.Define the presentation of the fetus, placenta, etc., that is evaluated primarily features unrelated to the leave.
- consultations related specialists: ophthalmologist, internist, ENT doctor, dentist.
Additional studies during pregnancy are appointed by the gynecologist by indications, depending on the age of the pregnant woman, the presence or absence of concomitant diseases, pregnancy complications.Also in need of further examination of pregnant women with a history of miscarriages, and long-suffering infertility.
most commonly prescribed for further examination following types of research:
- Analysis of urine by Nechiporenko on Zimnitsky For if identified some deviations in the overall analysis of urine;
- PCR swab from the vagina for examination for infections, sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, mycoplasmosis, HPV, HSV, CMV, trichomoniasis).Appointed by the results of the inspection and stroke and suspected intrauterine infection;
- Studies protivorezusnyh antibodies in the blood of women.Assign the presence of Rh-negative blood at the pregnant woman to avoid the risk of Rhesus-conflict several times throughout pregnancy;
- glycemic profile with determination of blood sugar levels.For if there is a pregnant diabetes or suspected him (upon detection of glucose in the urine or increased level of glucose in the blood);
- A blood test for thyroid hormones (TSH, T3 and T4) in the presence of thyroid disease;
- A blood test for hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, the S-GAD, 17-OH progesterone).Assign the presence of a history of miscarriages;
- Prenatal biochemical screening blood test - to detect chromosomal and non-chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus is carried out on 11-14 weeks of pregnancy.It is recommended for pregnant women older than 35 years.In some antenatal clinics administered to all pregnant women, regardless of age;
- Chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, cordocentesis, platsentotsentez - methods of prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities.Using a fine needle is taken fetal material (umbilical cord cells, placenta, amniotic fluid) for the study.Since these procedures quite invasive and meant by an invasion of the uterus - they operate on strict conditions (in the presence of a family of chromosomal diseases in radiation exposure, while taking anticancer drugs, suspected chromosomal abnormality on ultrasound, biochemical screening).Some gynecologists recommend a data research pozdnorodyaschim all women older than 35 years.
Obstetrician-gynecologist, Ph.D.Christina Frambos