Implantation of a pacemaker - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
only method of treatment of a rare heart rhythm (bradycardia) is the implantation of a pacemaker.This device restores normal heart rate.At the same time the volume of blood flowing to the organs, normalize, and bradycardia symptoms are eliminated.
What are the most common condition requiring the use of the pacemaker?
main indications for implantation of a permanent pacemaker are:
atrioventricular block symptomatic bradycardia (shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting) or pause longer than 3 seconds.
sick sinus syndrome with symptomatic bradycardia or heart rate & lt;40 beats per minute in the waking state.
Note.If bradycardia has no clinical manifestations, the need for surgery is usually absent.
What is a pacemaker?
Permanent pacemaker - is a complex electronic device that consists of a power supply and a microprocessor system forming electric pulses.All of this "filling" is packaged in a tiny titanium body, indifferent to the tissues of the human body.This device is connected to the electr
«on demand" work Currently all pacemakers.Through the electrodes, they feel the natural rhythm of the heart and emit pulses only when the spontaneous heart rate drops below the set (base) heart rate.In memory of modern pacemakers saved the most important information - the number and type of arrhythmia, pacing efficiency, the power supply condition, etc.
Setting the stimulation parameters after implantation of the pacemaker is performed with the help of a physician programmer - a computer device that reads data stored in the pacemaker memory, and set the parameters of stimulation.To reprogram the device, of course, there is no need for surgical intervention.
What types of pacemakers?
Pacemakers can provide stimulation to one or two chambers of the heart (about three-chamber pacing, we talk separately in the "Treatment of chronic heart failure").Single chamber stimulator can "feel" and only encourage the ventricle or atrium only.Dual-chamber pacemaker "feels" and consistently encourages the two chambers of the heart.In addition, in many applications there is a function of the frequency adaptation (or sensor), which allows you to assess the level of physical activity performed by a person, and to speed up the heart rate, according to the natural needs of your body.
most well-known manufacturers of pacemakers are firm Medtronic, St Jude Medical, Guidant (USA) and Biotronic (Germany).In Russia, the company produces pacemakers "Kardioelektronika" (Moscow), "Elista-Cardio" (Moscow) and IMZ.
What resources pacemakers?
Pacemakers are reliable and safe device.This allows producing firms to give a long warranty on their work (usually 4-5 years).In this real life of the Service is about 8-10 years.The duration of the pacemaker does not depend only from the power source state (usually, a lithium-iodine battery), and set the amplitude of stimulation, the number of connected additional options (eg, frequency adaptation), electrode condition and other factors.At the annual inspection of the system work, the doctor assesses the state of the power source of the pacemaker.For some parameters it can determine signs battery exhaustion before the pacing rate change stimulator.Usually, the pacemaker is designed to work for several months, even after reducing the frequency of stimulation.This allows the doctor to schedule an appointment scheduled replacement of the pacemaker.Since the "battery" built into the pacemaker housing, it should be replaced in its entirety.The fact needs to be replaced and the electrodes, and sometimes it can be said before the operation.But more often this question definitively solved during surgery.If the electrode condition is satisfactory, they will be connected to the new pacemaker