Transplantation of intestinal microflora - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
cases of unsuccessful attempts to restore normal intestinal bacterial flora after antibiotic use, against the flow of the gastrointestinal tract, are becoming more numerous and problems defecation disorders (constipation or diarrhea) are a disease of civilization.In the United States in recent years is widely used and is rapidly gaining popularity transplantation of normal intestinal flora from a healthy donor to a recipient suffering from disorders chair.Experience in North America, a lot of positive clinical experience, recommendations of the National Institute of Health (NIH, USA) gave grounds for the application of this innovative method of treatment in Russia.
In 2012, researchers at the hospital named after Henry Ford conducted a study involving 49 patients suffering from severe recurrent diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile.For the procedure the endoscope has been used, through which the large intestine of patients administered homogenized and the filtered solution, which was part of the war
As a result, 90% of patients within two hours after the procedure appetite appeared, during the day they felt a significant improvement, and a week later they felt completely healthy.In this case, for three months after therapy have not developed no complications or side effects of such treatment.
Another study conducted in 2013 by researchers from the University of Amsterdam found that fecal transplants in the gastrointestinal tract was three to four times more effective than antibiotics.Originally planned to recruit researchers to participate in tests of 120 patients, but in the end decided to stop the trial because of the obvious differences in the health status of both groups of volunteers.Of the 16 members of the group that received transplants of feces, 13 have fully recovered after the first procedure, and two others - after the second (94%), while as of the 26 patients treated with vancomycin, recovered only seven (27%).Other members of this group have asked the doctors to spend them the same procedure and recovered after one or two infusions.
also appeared in the United States the world's first fecal samples bank in February 2014 for the treatment of patients suffering from severe recurrent diarrhea caused by antibiotic-resistant strain of the bacterium Clostridium difficile.
addition to the treatment of intestinal infections, transplantation of fecal bacteria from donors could help reduce excess weight.The researchers hope to further experiments to determine the mechanism of the effect of bacteria on the process of losing weight and may offer a new, non-surgical way to reduce weight.
Several years ago, Australian scientists have proposed to treat patients suffering from Parkinson's disease at the same time, and bars, with the help of fecal transplant.The survey revealed that, due to the experimental therapy in patients reduced the severity of symptoms of the underlying disease, including Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic fatigue syndrome.
According to the hypothesis of scientists, in violation of the composition of the microflora in the bloodstream get different antigens.They cause excessive immune response that influences the development of Parkinson's disease, and autoimmune diseases.These assumptions are confirmed by other studies.In particular, according to Dutch specialists transplant feces increases insulin sensitivity in patients with the metabolic syndrome.
In Russia the first transplantation of cultures of normal intestinal microflora was successfully held in Novosibirsk in TSNMT in Akademgorodok.This change essentially - colonization of the intestine of the patient with symptoms of diarrhea / constipation normal intestinal microflora obtained from a healthy donor.In this case the donor passes thorough examination necessary to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases and certainty in the presence of normal healthy microflora.In a study using standards of the National Institute of Health (NIH, USA).
Indications for transplant microflora
Transplant conducted in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), irritable bowel syndrome (such as constipation or diarrhea), obesity, infection under the treatment of C. Difficile (pseudomembranous enterocolitis).
microflora fact - is the transfer of fecal donor, dissolved in water and containing useful bacteria recipient.To microflora "caught" bacteria cultures are placed exactly in the place where they have to "live and work" - the colon - Using fibrocolonoscopy - flexible thin endovideoskopicheskogo tool.This procedure (colonoscopy) is held under general anesthesia (sedation), after consultation of the gastroenterologist, passing under the individual plan and the survey takes 1 day.In consequence the patient receives detailed recommendations burdensome and there is a gastroenterologist for 2 weeks.According to animal studies, transplantation of fecal bacteria is able to restore normal intestinal microflora by 90%.
procedures Despite the growing popularity, experimental data, in particular in Russia, accumulated enough.There is evidence that if the transplant is performed on a patient with obesity, the recipient is also facing obesity!There is reason to believe that the same mechanism applies to other diseases.
Scientific progress: feces capsules
Existing methods of fecal microbiota transplantation - the transplantation of faeces taken from healthy donors, through the colonoscope, a nasogastric tube or enema - have the potential risk of damage to the gastrointestinal tract and are patient discomfort.
why American scientists have proposed a method of transplanting fecal oral (by mouth) in the treatment of intestinal infections.The results showed that the frozen feces receiving capsules is as safe and effective in combating the bacterium Clostridium difficile induced diarrhea like feces and infusion through a nasogastric tube or colonoscope.
new approach is as follows: frozen faeces from healthy donors, and then the resulting mixture of these intestinal bacteria and acid-filled into capsules for oral ingestion.Previously conducted a laboratory analysis of faecal samples at various infections and allergens.
The pilot study involved 20 people between the ages of 11 to 84 years with an intestinal infection caused by C. difficile.For two days, each subject received 15 capsules of fecal contents.In 14 experimental therapy led to complete disappearance of symptoms after a single two-day course.The rest of the six study participants spent the second course of treatment, after which the condition of the patients also normalized.During the test, no side effects of the drug were noted.
As the study authors note, patients who needed a second course of therapy, the initial state of health was worse than that of other patients."These preliminary data suggest the safety and effectiveness of a new approach," - the researchers noted.- Now we can conduct larger and large-scale studies to confirm these findings and to identify the most effective active bacterial mixtures for oral administration. "
availability, safety and effectiveness of this method of restoration of the normal microflora provide new opportunities to overcome the serious problems of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and metabolic disorders.