Dental implants - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Today, dental implants - one of the most progressive and promising branch of dentistry, which brings together different professionals to address the rehabilitation needs of people with missing teeth.Currently, dental implants - the only alternative to dental bridge work at the loss of one tooth, the removable full denture - the loss of all teeth.
implant is a rod that is screwed into the jawbone where teeth are missing lost, and serves as a root, on top of which is worn an artificial tooth crown.Then this design functions well for a long time in the mouth.
dental implants - a responsible and serious.For doctors and clinics the choice should be approached seriously.The clinic and the doctor, first of all, must be credible.
implant type in the lower jaw bone
Like any manipulation in medicine, to implant a number of indications and contraindications.
Contraindications to dental implants:
Contraindications are absolute (in which you can never do the surgery) and relative (when the operation can
- Malignant tumors of various organs and systems, because the operation can cause the spread of the tumor and lead to sudden death;
- Various diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (hemolytic anemia).Since bleeding may occur, which would be difficult to stop;
- Various diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system (e.g. schizophrenia, dementia, psychosis);
- Pathology of the immune system (systemic lupus erythematosus, hypoplastic thymus and parathyroid glands);
- Various endocrine diseases (diabetes mellitus, adrenal pathology).
- Various systemic diseases of connective tissue;
- oral diseases (eg, chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis);
- acute period of any disease;
- Dental caries and periodontal disease (gingivitis - inflammation of the gums, marginal periodontitis - an inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth, periodontal disease);
- Poor oral hygiene;
- Certain types of malocclusion;
- Bruxism (teeth grinding at night);
- Diseases of the temporomandibular joint (arthrosis, arthritis);
- Various pre-cancerous diseases of the mouth;
- atrophy, lack of jawbone;
- Bad habits (smoking, excessive coffee and alcohol);
- Specific contraindications for intraosseous implantation is the lack of bone tissue with a proposed transaction, since around the implant on all sides must be preserved for at least two millimeters of the dice.This is necessary for the prevention of bone atrophy.
Indications for dental implants:
- Single included defect dentition with healthy adjacent teeth.When the lost one tooth, and standing next to healthy teeth and not to grind them under the crown, you can use the implant prosthetics.
- included defects of the dentition.When no row of teeth 2 and 4, they can also be recovered using dental implants.
Prosthesis on implants of included side dentition defect
- End defects of the dentition.When there is no posterior teeth (eg, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth teeth).
Prosthetics on implants terminal defect
- Complete absence of teeth.In such a situation, if the person is not morally ready to complete the removable prosthesis, then as a more expensive alternative, you can use the implantation of teeth.
Types of dental implants
Dental implants usually consist of two parts:
• Actually the implant (ie, the part that is fixed into the jawbone and serves as a tooth root).
• Abutment - binding element between the actual implant and an artificial tooth crown.
Components of dental implant
There are many different classifications of dental implants.They differ in material, shape intraosseous part of the rod, on the types and timing of implantation.The choice of implant depends on the specific clinical situation (for example, on the number, height and width of the jawbone, by nature of the defect in the dentition), and problems to be solved with the help of their installation.
Varieties of dental implants
most common implants are made of titanium, which has anti-corrosion properties and biocompatibility with human bone.Such properties reduce the likelihood of titanium bone fracture, for example, during mastication.
most commonly used and popular dental implants root form.Are used in an amount sufficient bone.In the classic version looks like a stepped cylinder with thread.Among them, the most commonly used and cylindrical screw dental implants.Screw easier to install and they give less complications.
Tapered implants have many variations.There are different models of surface texture, different thread forms, etc.Such diversity is necessary for strength and reliable fixation in the bone tissue structure.
If there was a decline in bone or have any anatomical features of dentoalveolar apparatus, which does not allow the use of Tapered implants can be used laminar, combined, intramucosal, endodontic stabilized and other species.
the plate implants.They are used in the terminal defects, and when the jaw bone is very narrow, and Tapered implants can not be applied.
implants combined form - a combination of the plate and Tapered implants.Used for large defects of the dentition.The above three types of dental implants are intraosseous (endosseous) implants.
subperiosteal implants (subperiosteal) used in strong thinning of the alveolar processes of the jaws.They are installed between the periosteum and the bone.
Endodontic Instruments stabilized implants.They are installed into the jawbone through the tip of the tooth root.In this setup, the mucosa is injured less than with other species, and the healing process is faster.Used when it is necessary to strengthen the tooth root.
intramucosal implants.They allow you to dispense with the introduction into the jawbone.Mainly used for improving the stabilization of full or partial removable dentures.
known that after tooth extraction, when there is insufficient load on the alveolar bone atrophy bone occurs at 40-60% for the first two, three years after the removal of her lifetime and then resorption by about 1% per year.If you long to delay implantation, the amount of bone each year will become less and less, and eventually it will be enough.It will also change and its topography, which prevents the installation of implants in the optimal position.To assist in such situations prevailing developed many methods of augmentation (increase in bone) - autologous transplantation of bone blocks, thickening of the bottom of the maxillary sinus (sinus lift), aimed at improving the conditions for implant placement.
techniques dental implants
There are two main methods of dental implants:
1. Single-stage, ieInstallation of the implant is carried out at a reception at the dentist directly in the hole remote tooth or a couple of months after its removal (delayed implantation).
2. Two-stage.First the intraosseous portion of the implant, and after its engraftment (a few months) - abutment.
implantation success depends on the materials, conditions and techniques of the operation, as well as from the stage of preparation for implantation, to perform dental recommendations.With careful and attentive attitude implants can serve more than 10 years.
teeth 1. Careful planning.When planning implant surgery need to be examined by a doctor - implantologist, an orthopedic doctor, and if necessary, orthodontist and periodontist.
Planning consists of a preliminary assessment of the state of the human body.Estimates as oral, and the whole organism.At this stage the inspection of the oral cavity.We study the panoramic images of the jaws (orthopantomogram), 3D computed tomography (depending on the situation).Using a three-dimensional model of the jaw, the doctor may produce virtual extractions to assess the possibility of a one-stage dental implants.It can check the relation between the implants with the relief of bone, natural teeth and future orthopedic construction.The use of such 3D technology allows us to achieve high quality results.
Before further planning of dental implants, you need to take a blood, urine, carry out pre-treatment if necessary.
Before the operation, it is necessary to cure the carious teeth, make a professional teeth cleaning (to remove dental plaque).You must learn proper oral hygiene and care of the peculiarities of dentures on implants.After all, the microbes that live in dental plaque can prevent engraftment of titanium rod.And if a person does not want or can not "keep clean" the mouth, it is grounds for rejection of implantation.In this case, it is recommended or non-removable prosthesis removable prosthesis (depending on the clinical situation).
2. Surgical phase - the main stage of implantation.The technique the operation is performed under local anesthesia potent.Its essence consists in inserting the implant into the jawbone.The duration of the installation of the implant takes an average of 30-50 minutes.
After anesthesia incision of the mucous membrane, special tools drilled hole in the bone and the intramedullary rod is installed, and then the wound is sutured (two-stage technique).The procedure is absolutely painless, but some discomfort is possible, because there is, then, that doing something in the mouth.Thereafter, titanium pin given time to settle down.
For several months the progress of healing process should the doctor-implantologist.
Steps for installing the implant
3. Installation of the abutment.When the doctor sees that the implant is caught (there was a so-called osseointegration - fusion of a titanium pin bone), is a new cut in the same place and is set above the gum the abutment.After installation it takes about a week to complete all stages of prosthetics on implants.
4. Pillow stage.At this stage, on the abutment is attached artificial tooth crown or other elements of the prosthesis.Then you can use the new design with pleasure.
Complications after implantation
As with any medical operation, after implantation may cause complications.Complications can be both early (in the first few months, years) and late (2-3 years later) after the implants and prostheses.According to some estimates the number of complications is about 5%.
Complications after surgery dental implants, associated with the technique of:
• damage to the soft tissues of the face;
• damage to the facial artery (bleeding) and nerves (especially during the operation in the lower jaw);
• perforation of the nasal cavity, the mandibular canal, maxillary sinus;
Complications not related to the technique of implantation:
• atrophy of bone tissue in the area of implant fixation;
• rejection of the implant;
• perimplantit (inflammation of tissues surrounding the implant);
• appearance of bone spurs in place of the implant fixation.
Advantages of dental implants:
1. Do not damage standing next to healthy teeth;
2. Convenience and comfort, incomparable with other types of prosthetics;
3. Using the implant allows us to produce a fixed prosthesis.
4. The service life of the implant in approximately 2 times greater than conventional bridges.
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