Sealing teeth ( cavities and root canals ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
If tooth decay has spread deeper into the surface layer of enamel, especially in finding a defect in the natural grooves (fissures) or between the teeth, then it is an indication for dental fillings.At the middle and deep caries filling defect it is compulsory and is conducted with the use of so-called pads - insulation (to protect the deeper layers of dentin) and therapeutic (containing calcium and promotes the regeneration of the dentin).
Consider how prishodit filling cavities.
What today are the different types of seals?What are their advantages and disadvantages?
most modern and are very popular today, so-called "light-curing" seal.They are called so because they harden when exposed to light of a certain frequency.These seals are many advantages over the other: first, they are very aesthetic (not visible), which is particularly important when filling the front group of teeth, and secondly, they have a good strength and low shrinkage.In addition, they are very convenient t
for sealing such material doctor mechanically (metal and diamond burs) remove all diseased tissue decay.
In severe pain during dissection may conduct anesthesia.Then, after the antiseptic treatment, necessarily put "lining", whose purpose - to isolate the tooth tissue from the harmful effects of the filling material.After that, the whole cavity is treated special acid, which after washing, apply "the bonding" (glue) system.She and causes such a good adhesion (prilepaemost) fillings.
further layers applied filling material, each layer of a special lamp is lighted.
After machining Sanding excess material (when the doctor asks you to "nakusit", these surpluses are seen him), made grinding and polishing fillings.The well-polished the seal plaque is formed much more slowly, and it is - the key to long life seals, moreover, well polished seal virtually indistinguishable from the tooth structure.
entire process of setting a seal, depending on the complexity, takes 40 - 90 minutes.
Seals chemical curing
Equally popular fillings and chemical curing.Curing takes place under the influence of a chemical reaction between its member and catalyst paste are mixed immediately before use.The solidification of the material begins in a few minutes and lasts for days.As for the rest, they have the same advantages as the light material - they also have a wide color palette, which enables them to choose the color of the tooth, it is very durable, have low shrinkage.Formulation
such seals also begins with anesthesia (if required) and removal of the infected tissue by means of a drill.Further processing is performed oral antiseptic and production of "backing" that protects the tooth tissue from chemicals seals.The walls of the cavity are treated acid (the same as in the formulation of light-curing fillings), acid washed off.Further, as applied "the bonding" (adhesive) composition, simultaneously filling material is introduced into the prepared cavity is formed by the anatomical shape of the tooth is ground and polished.
Since in this case does not have to spend time on the blowing out of each layer of material, and the duration of the procedure is reduced to 20-30 minutes.
doctor's recommendation in this case would be to refrain from the use of strongly coloring foods (beets, carrots, soft drinks, juices, etc.), as they may distort the color of fillings.
next type of fillings - cements.To date, the seal of the least popular, becauseThey have several disadvantages.They can not pick up a tooth color, they are very demanding to the formation of cavities for fillings physician and method of preparation.They are the least strong and the service life of their little.But they are very affordable and are used in some cases, especially in pediatric dentistry at sealing milk teeth.In this group there is a subgroup of glass ionomer cements, which should tell us more, because it has the widest application.These cements contain in their composition of fluoride ions, which leads to their ability to strengthen tooth tissue.In addition, they are resistant to moisture in the formulation, which is also very useful in pediatric practice, when to achieve absolute dryness is not possible.
To put a cement seal doctor also removes all destroyed by caries tooth tissues (if necessary under anesthesia), handles the cavity with antiseptic, then carefully dried cavity and it paid the required amount of cement.Next, the excess removed by means of a drill, the seal surface is polished.
Polished cement fillings is not possible, which means that the seal surface is rough, which is a favorable factor for the "attachment" to her plaque.
and thus the time spent on setting cement fillings, is only 10-20 minutes.After setting the seal doctor will recommend you to refrain from eating for 2 hours in order to avoid an excessive load on the seal and its final solidification.
amalgams and plastics are now used very rarely because of the high toxicity and unaesthetic.
Filling of root-canal.
Filling the tooth root canal is needed when tooth decay goes into pulp.
Filling of root-canal is to the filling material as closely as possible to fill the tooth root canals, as after the removal of the nerve, this channel is empty.
Modern methods of filling canals and filling materials allow to carry out this process is quite fast and quite painless.
tooth root is difficult to treat, as it is difficult to survey, and it raises the same difficulties with the filling of the channel.It is important to determine the root canal length, which is determined by means of X-rays.Crucial moment is the correct filling of the root canal.
for root canal filling in modern dental clinics apply the following methods:
1. canal filling method of a paste.
2. The method of one (central) pin.
3. Filling the canal with gutta-percha.
lateral condensation method.
sealing method of chemically softened gutta-percha.
warm vertical compaction of gutta-percha.
Thermomechanical compaction of gutta-percha.
channel obturation with gutta-percha, administered by syringe.
method of introducing gutta percha on a carrier (-germafil)
4. depoforeza copper-calcium hydroxide.
paste for sealing canals.
paste based on zinc oxide and eugenol.They are designed for sealing all groups of teeth.However, they tend to leach out of the root canal and have a stimulating effect on the tooth tissue.
Resorcinol - formalin paste has found wide application in dental fillings for decades.Material changes the color of the tooth.
Pasta forfenan.During the polymerization in the channel it is heated and emits formaldehyde gas.It penetrates into the lateral canals and pulp turns into an insoluble antiseptic education.Pasta is easily inserted into the channel and hardens within 24 hours.
Pasta endametozon.It has good characteristics.It does not resolve in the channel of the tooth, it does not cause irritation in the channel remains unchanged.paste powder has two colors: pink and orange and ivory.Pinkish-orange color of the tooth changes.
flaws that have pasta and cements at sealing :
when filling a paste, despite its apparent simplicity, removal of the top of the material is the rule rather than the exception.The distribution of the material in the channel is often non-uniform, there is the possibility of the air gap.Its disadvantage is the fact that the paste may be significantly reduced in volume and some paste - dissolve upon contact with tissue fluid.
Unfortunately, in Russian clinics most common root canal filling paste one .
method of one (central) core pin.This method
some guidelines called "standardized method".This method uses the principle of combining root canal filling paste with a single pin.It should be noted, however, that when it is necessary to produce root canal preparation with the establishment of apical conical shape.Root canals filled with paste.
After the introduction of the paste duct fitted gutta-percha pin is dipped into a paste and slowly introduce it into the canal until it stops.As the slow progress of the pin does not push forward and push the paste over the top of it, and distribute it evenly in the channel, forcing the excess in the tooth cavity.When used correctly, this method ensures reliable sealing of the root canal.
Methods gutta-percha filling channels should be preferred.However, at this stage, with considerable financial difficulties, and because of great habit to a method of filling a paste, a pin method is quite affordable medical dental institutions of any level.
After filling the root canal is needed to radiographic inspection, and only then applied a seal.
Root canal filling with gutta-percha
The greatest requirements for filling material corresponds to the technique of sealing channel with gutta-percha.But as the gutta-percha filling material has a major drawback - the inability of blocking microorganisms.
canal filling with gutta-percha - Method side (lateral) condensation of cold gutta-percha. lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha pins with filler (sealant) is considered the most reliable method of sealing root canals .In addition, there are indications that the effectiveness of the side seal is determined by root canal treatment care.It is noted that within 15 days after filling the inflammation subsided, and a year later took place the restoration of periodontal tissue.
the steps envisaged In carrying out the method of lateral condensation.
fit of the central pin.Drying
Introduction to the main channel of the pin.
marginalization pin to the channel wall.
introduction of an additional pin, pre-lubricated with sealant in the resulting space.
canal filling gutta-percha pins repeat this procedure.
Cutting excess of gutta percha at the mouth of the channel.
vertical condensation of gutta-percha in the mouth of the channel.
Thermo - is a way of filling a tooth root canal with gutta-percha heated on a plastic carrier, which is called an obturator.When warming up the gutta percha becomes plastic and due to this property, there is a tight sealing of the root canal.The tightness reduces the risk of development of microorganisms in the root canal.This system has gained its popularity after the onset of the tools by which the opportunity machined tooth channel.
procedure of root canal filling thermophiles following: plastic pin with heated gutta-percha is injected slowly into the root canal, and gutta-percha under pressure fills all lateral canals and branches.By the way here and was the second name of this method - volumetric filling, as this immediately sealed the entire root system of the tooth.
Preheat the gutta-percha is very plastic and therefore perfect seal not only the main canal of the tooth, but also the small side canals, bumps on the inner surface of the canal.The result - high-quality simultaneous filling of the main and all additional root canal.This makes it possible to achieve high integrity sealing, which significantly reduces the risk of root canal pathogens.In addition, the system involves the use of thermophile less toxic paste filling in smaller quantities, and it can significantly reduce the intensity of pain after tooth canal filling procedure.Furthermore, when using the treatment system thermophile significantly reduced, which provides additional comfort to the patient.
Of course, the technique requires large material costs: need a drill with the endodontic tip, special furnaces for heating of gutta-percha, high-quality expensive endodontic instruments (many of which are only a few times can be used).Despite this Thermo system it has gained wide popularity in dentistry and has been used successfully in our country today.
Thermo main advantages of the system:
• ensuring higher compared with other methods of sealing of leaks;
• less risk of inflammatory processes after sealing;
• less toxicity to the patient;
• absence of painful reactions after treatment root canal fillings;
• speed of treatment
Method This method is used in dental fillings with impassable and curved canals.depoforeza method of copper hydroxide and calcium allows to keep very bad teeth.With the help of a special tool in the root canal system is introduced drug.Formed a drug depot.This occurs canal sterilization, as hydroxide - calcium copper has a strong bactericidal properties.
As the clinical observations, the ideal material for root canal filling is still no.However, the best is percha , which is inert to surrounding tissues, almost does not change the volume, reliable occlusive channel, is easy to handle.