Antidepressants - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Medicine

Opinions of physicians and patients about the drug therapy may be different.About 20 years ago, we believed that the antidepressants must begin to use when manifestations of depression, but then it turned out that antidepressants have not only therapeutic but also preventive effect.After stopping very quickly eliminated from the body and depression may recur.It was found that the duration of treatment should be 6-12 months.Supportive or prophylactic treatment is given in cases where patients had more than three depressive episodes in a short period of time or those who have more severe manifestations of the disease and did not return to full normal state, as in the cases of hereditary predisposition to dysphoria, with difficult lifea situation that provokes the development of stress.

Depression varied in its forms, and therefore the effects of antidepressants can be quite different, the recovery process of patients also looks different.

Antidepressants affect all symptoms of depression or lead to thei

r complete disappearance.Often the first sign of action of drugs is to improve sleep.Sleep becomes deeper, nightmares disappear.In another case, more pronounced sedation.Reduced irritability, symptoms of fear and anxiety decrease.But it does not take place less than a week, or even months, before the patient begins to feel the improvement of mood, serenity, complete and more profound peace.

In the process of treatment is always dominated by a favorable trend.More significant improvements occur in 3-4 weeks and completely disappear depressive symptoms after 1 -2 months.There are exceptions when patients are already starting on antidepressants receive a second day feel much better.

In most cases, antidepressant treatment is characterized as substantially effective, and is recommended for all patients with mood disorders.

What are antidepressants

1. Tricyclic antidepressants: amitriptyline, amoxapine, dothiepin, doxepin, imipramine, clomipramine, lofepramine, nortriptyline.
main group of antidepressants to fight depression.The mechanism is the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotanina presinaptichesskimi cells, which are responsible for a stable, good mood.Thus increasing and accumulated concentration of these conductors and restored normal operation of the synapse (contact).

2. heterocyclic antidepressants: maprotiline, mianserin.
similar in action with tritsiklichesskimi, a distinctive feature that they are also involved in the synthesis of substances that help suppress the destruction serotanina.

3. Irreversible non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors: isocarboxazid, traniltsipramin, phenelzine;reversible: moclobemide, selegiline.
mechanism of action of this class of drugs based on the inhibition of activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase, involved in breaking down norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine.This allows you to increase the concentration of the conductors in the synapse, and restore the normal activity of the nervous system.

4. Selective inhibitors of serotonin reuptake first generation: paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, second generation: escitalopram.
blocks the destruction serotanina, thereby eliminating the deficit, but do not affect the synthesis of the substance in the neuron.

5. selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors: reboksitin;serotonin and norepinephrine: venlafaxine, milnacipran.
This group of drugs used to treat mild to moderate depression.The mechanism of action of this group is based on too serotonin reuptake inhibition, norepinephrine, increasing their concentration.

6. 5-HT2 antagonists as: nefazodone, trazodone.

7. Atypical antidepressants: mirtazapine, bupropion.
We only know that they have no effect on the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine.Is not fully understood mechanisms to improve their concentration.

Memo patient on treatment with antidepressants

• Depression is a real illness that can be effectively treated with antidepressants.The goal of drug therapy is complete freedom from symptoms of depression, and the patient's return to normal.
• Antidepressants are not addictive.
• The correct antidepressant - the key to success.Do not fall for the tricks of advertising, to listen to the doctor, not to impose their opinion on the treatment.
• Antidepressants are slow, and the antidepressant effect is the result of many days or even weeks.
• Antidepressants are taken regularly by a doctor.Chaotic reception reduces the therapeutic effect.
• The first antidepressant effect can be expected in the near future, after two weeks of treatment, after which the psychiatrist makes a reassessment of the effectiveness of treatment.
• Full antidepressant effect usually develops within 4-8 weeks of use, and in old age much later.
• Treating depression is a long process.The optimal duration of treatment depends on many factors and is consistent with a psychiatrist.
• Premature discontinuation of antidepressants is not recommended, a very high risk of recurrence.
• Independently reduce the dosage is not recommended, it can lead to unpleasant and disturbing symptoms.
• A positive reaction to an antidepressant is observed in 50-70% of patients - others need additional treatment or change the dose of the drug.
• Some antidepressants may affect the ability to drive a car.Always ask your doctor whether taking medication to control vehicles.
• Use of certain antidepressants may be contraindicated in certain somatic (bodily) diseases, so be sure to tell the psychiatrist about all diseases and observing other doctors.
• Some antidepressants may cause serious side effects in the interaction with alcohol.Always ask a psychiatrist about the possibility of alcohol during treatment with antidepressants.
• Starting antidepressant treatment sometimes fear of the other supporting medication.For example benzodiazepines (Xanax, nitrazepam).
• Acceptance of any antidepressant can be complicated by side effects, depending on the drug.
for a new generation of drugs, most side effects occur only in conjunction with an auxiliary drug.Side effects usually disappear within a few days and long-term use of the drug is not burdensome.
• The use of some antidepressants may cause sexual dysfunction.

Natural antidepressants

Vitamin D. Canadian researchers found that vitamin D has a strong correlation with depression.People with vitamin D deficiency eleven times more prone to depression than those with normal levels.Contained in dairy products, egg yolks, shellfish, mackerel, cereal (oatmeal), parsley, potatoes, and even some grasses (alfalfa, dandelion greens, nettle, horsetail).
itself vitamin D can be synthesized in the body under the influence of ultraviolet radiation.Therefore, in treating depression has been applied phototherapy.Just easily it can be found in the pharmacy network.Included in the many multivitamins like Centrum, alphabet, komplevit, vitrum.And separately sold under the names Calcium D3, Calcemin, Akvadetrim, calciferol.

Omega-3 fatty acids. Studies suggest that depression, get sick more often people who consume less omega-3 fatty acids.Flax seeds, walnuts, soybeans, dry zadyshit oats, wheat germ, beans, common, fish and other marine mammals.The pharmacy is found under the name of the well-known fish oil, as it contains drugs with the same name omega q3 different manufacturers.Most budget option is fish oil, especially because now it is not necessary to "eat with a spoon," he has a convenient dosage form and is available in capsules.

amino acids. Depression and anxiety occur when disrupted neurotransmitter in the brain.These building components are amino acids.They are sometimes used as an alternative treatment of depression, intolerance of antidepressants.There is a high efficiency and absence of side effects.There are about 300 different amino acids, but only the main 20. Contains almost all products, depending on the amino acids.Generally, in animal food, grain legumes, nuts.Finished drugs, the whole set of amino acids, it is more convenient to buy sports nutrition store called BCAAs, AMINO5500, SYNTHA-6, SUPER AMINO, PWER SYSTEM and so on.

Melatonin. When depression complicated by insomnia, as a regulator of the circadian sleep rhythms.It stimulates the immune system is involved in the biochemical processes as an antioxidant, occupies an important role in the formation of neuronal processes.The precursor tryptophan, which is found in bananas, pumpkin seeds, nuts, meat, chicken and turkey, the seeds of white and black mustard, maize, rice, barley, ginger, pomegranate, strawberry.For sale in pharmacies in the form fitomelatonina, and under the same name of different manufacturers.

caffeine, theobromine, theophylline - stimulants are effective in drowsiness, inactivity, reduced working capacity, as well as in mental stress.Contained in coffee, cocoa and tea.Caffeine is a part of such drugs as askofen, migrenium, caffeine-sodium benzoate.It is used with caution, if depression is associated with lack of Mg, and the K, as it helps to remove them from the body.

St. John's Wort acts as an antidepressant, it is available in the form of an oily solution or an alcohol tincture, dry brewed as a tea or in a water bath.

Ginko biloba - strengthens blood vessels and improve blood flow, so it is recommended for depression in the elderly.

Siberian ginseng improves resistance to stress and improves the work of neurotransmitters in the brain (dopamine and serotonin).In the form of an alcohol tincture, decoction, tablets.

Griffon (Griffonia - woody climbing shrub) - a rare plant that can increase the levels of serotonin and leveling mood swings.It is recommended for bipolar depression.This drug protivopakazano sick with exhaustion as a result of depression, as further reduces appetite.Available in the form of dietary supplements.

Echinacea purpurea is psihoimunostimulyatorom, effective for physical and mental fatigue.Used tinctures, decoctions and extracts of plants, there is a tablet formulation in the form of dietary supplements.

Peony has a soothing and anti-convulsive properties.It is used as a sedative, with increased excitability, improves sleep, increases efficiency.The pharmacy chain is most common in alcoholic infusions.

Rosemary regulates neural and endocrine processes of depression, is effective for depression aggravated by menopause.Popular in the form of essential oils.

Eleutherococcus used in vegetovascular disorders and low pressure, physical and mental fatigue, weakness of the body, as a means to increase the tone.The disadvantage of this short-term effect, up to several hours.Available in alcoholic tinctures, decoctions.

Aral used for general weakness and reduced pressure, nervous exhaustion, impotence, strengthens the body as a whole.It also stimulates the central nervous system.Use bark, prepare infusions, decoctions.

Precautions Treat reception motherwort, hawthorn, valerian, cyanosis, since they strongly pronounced calming effect and can worsen depression and reduce the activity!It can be used to facilitate falling asleep and in acute stress situations.

drugs is best to buy in the pharmacy network, after consulting with a doctor, according to the instruction, as in a variety of tinctures and solutions contain different percentage of the active substance obtained from a plant!

Psychiatrist Kondratenko NA