Carotenoids in the treatment of age -related macular degeneration of the retina - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Medicine

Age-related macular degeneration of the retina (AMD) Ranked Among persons found in 58-100% of cases over 45 years.It is a chronic disease associated with damage to the macular (central) area of ​​the retina, thereby reducing the severity of central vision.The macula, or yellow spot, is a zone of the best vision, which focuses the bulk of the photoreceptor, and we are interested in pigments: lutein and zeaxanthin.

main symptoms of age-related macular degeneration of the retina

- a gradual decrease in vision,
- changes mainly concern the area of ​​central vision,
- often affects both eyes,
- distortion, blurring of straight lines,
- decrease the contrast of view,
- spot, a pointin the central part of the field of view,
- loss of parts of the text, the letters while reading.

Risk factors for AMD:

- age (over 45 years)
- diabetes
- atherosclerosis
- violation of lipid
exchange - smoking
- hypertension
- increased insolation (sunlight)

Diagnostics agemacular degeneration of the retina

IMPORTANT!If you have suspicions on the development of the pathological process, as soon as possible consult an ophthalmologist.Age-related macular degeneration of the retina - a disease in which effective treatment can be achieved only in the early stages.

To clarify the diagnosis modern ophthalmology has the following research methods:

Traditional:

- visual acuity,
- biomicroscopy using vysokodioptriynyh lenses.

Modern, computerized methods:

- definition of fields of view,
- optical coherence tomography,
- Fluorescent retinal angiography.

Changes in the structure of the macula in age-related macular degeneration of the retina

We will not delve into the differences between the wet and dry form of age-related macular degeneration of the retina, in both cases, there is destruction of all layers of the retina, mainly the central zone.One of such layers refers pigment epithelium, it is of interest to us in that it comprises the lion's share of carotenoids (pigment: lutein and zeaxanthin).

pigment epithelium - a structure, located outside the nervous part of the retina that performs multiple functions, such as: metabolic, optical, barrier.During the progression of age-related macular degeneration occurs dispigmentation and atrophy of the pigment epithelium cells.These changes lead to thinning and atrophy of the retinal neuroepithelium due to degeneration and death of photoreceptors, atrophy develops outer nuclear layer of the retina cells to be choriocapillaries.

karotinoydy What is their function in the eye?

Lutein and zeaxanthin - carotenoids are natural with no vitamin A activity.The main share of lutein is concentrated in the organ of vision, namely, about 70% is in the macula, the macula of the retina.These substances are not synthesized in the body, so the person receives them with certain foods.

carotenoid functions in the organ of vision:

antioxidant effect
Retina refers to the tissues with a high risk of oxidative damage, this is due to the constant action of an intense, focused light that stimulates the formation of free radicals, abundantly provided with blood vessels, substrate oxidation.The mechanism of protective action of lutein, zeaxanthin is the binding and inactivation of active oxygen species.

optical filter
mechanism is filtering the visual-ineffective portion of the spectrum, decreasing the flow of the most aggressive part of the visible spectrum - 400-500 nm.

Regardless of the fact that 97% karotinoydov circulating in the human body are in the eye, namely in the retina and mainly in the macula, with the age of the content will certainly decrease.But equally important reduction in bioavailability, i.e. reduced the amount of substance achieved the place of its fixation in the human body.It says that after 45 years of futile eat foods basins filled karotinoydami, the percentage of their falling into the retina of the eye is too small.

Treatment of age-related macular degeneration of the retina carotenoids

worth noting that the age-related macular degeneration - a disease that requires lifelong monitoring, and often difficult to treat.The effect of the measures taken depends on the timely treatment, naturally the shape and stage of the disease, a combination of medical, laser and surgical treatment.

If you have macular degeneration, lutein and zeaxanthin intake will not return you to view, but can help prevent the progression of the disease.Take the medicine (lutein and zeaxanthin), it makes sense to at least 3 months, or just the active ingredients reach the desired concentration.

to conservative treatment is often prescribed and various dedistroficheskie agents, antioxidants, immunomodulators, but none of these drugs is not evidence.

possible to cure age-related macular degeneration of the retina carotenoids?

cure age-related macular degeneration preparations containing lutein and zeaxanthin is not possible.Age-related macular degeneration of the retina - it is a disease with serious violations in the retinal layers, and grant karotinoydov only protect it from further damage, but the way to cure lutein and zeaxanthin can not be named!

Koratinoydy - the best way of prevention!

can say exactly what preparations containing lutein and zeaxanthin - that's the best way to prevent age-related macular degeneration of the retina.

Lutein and zeaxanthin - a very powerful protective factor, but with age has the property to reduce the concentration in the body.Therefore, a balanced diet, if possible grant karotinoydov shown to persons under the age of 45 years having the disease of the body exposed to harmful factors in the course of professional activities.

Karotinoydy, namely lutein and zeaxanthin, are not the drug of choice for treating age makulo dystrophy, but it is an excellent tool for the prevention and the prevention of the progression of macular degeneration.

Ophthalmologist Voinov DA,
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