Diet for Diabetes - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Diabetes mellitus is the most common disorders of the endocrine system.This metabolic diseases characterized by increased levels of glucose (sugar) blood.At high concentrations of sugar toxic substance it becomes virtually all tissues and organs.Gradually, vision deteriorates, affected kidneys, liver, heart, nervous system.At extremely high values of blood glucose can occur coma - a life-threatening emergency.
diabetes Treatment depends on the type of disease.Thus, in patients with autoimmune diabetes (type 1) is required to insulin, with insulin resistance (type 2) and possibly insulin therapy with oral medications.But any type of diabetes requires patient compliance with diet.It is with the body received food nutrients, which are then converted into glucose.The composition and amount of food strongly affect the rate of rise in the blood sugar level.Even using the most modern drugs, but keeping to a diet, the patient will never reach a satisfactory control of the disease.Diet with any type of diabet
total calorie intake in diabetes
energy value of foods is measured in calories.The more calories, the more energy for various activities that carries food into the body.Calorie products specified by the manufacturer on the packaging.In addition, there are special tables Product calories per 100 g of the most high-calorie products are fats, confectionery and pastry.Caloric needs and depends on the individual exercise, weight, age and sex.To find out your calorie needs per day is necessary to see a specialist (endocrinologist, a nutritionist, a therapist), or take advantage of special formulas.On average, the modern woman needs 1500 - 2500 kcal per day, the man some more.Patients with diabetes it is important to keep track of the total calorie intake.If there is overweight, the calories should be limited.That is, with food should come less energy than will be spent.This will reduce the weight. Hunger is harmful and unacceptable for patients diabetes, therefore it is impossible to reduce the calorie intake below 1200 calories a day for women and 1600 kcal - for men.
Carbohydrates in the diet of diabetics
cornerstone of the diet in diabetes is to eliminate simple carbohydrates.It monosaccharides, characterized by a high glycemic index.Products containing such substances, blood sugar increase almost immediately after ingestion of food.By monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, sucrose.Let's look at foods rich in these substances.Thus, the power of normal should be excluded sugar, fructose, all confections made with their use.The patient can not sweets, biscuits, jam, jam, chocolate.At the pharmacy or specialized departments of stores you can buy pastries on sweeteners and sugar substitutes themselves.Fructose is also often sold as a sweetener, and pastries with fructose may be called diabetic, dietary. According to modern concepts, fructose is not an acceptable product for patients with diabetes and should be completely excluded from the menu. Therefore, pay attention to the composition of the "diabetic" sweets.Allowed the use of sorbitol, xylitol and non-nutritive sweeteners in tablet form (aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin).sweeteners to products may only be used in small quantities.Honey contains in its composition fructose and sucrose.It is a useful product, but only for those who have no diagnosis of diabetes.Honey should be completely removed from the diet of patients with diabetes.
also completely eliminated any fruit juice from the menu of the patient with diabetes.You can not drink the juice shop, the juice from the pharmacy with a "sugar-free" labeled and home juice prepared without added sugar.In any fruit from nature already contains a lot of simple carbohydrates.juicing technology makes these sugars are readily available for our bodies.The juice contains no fiber, so monosaccharides rapidly released into the bloodstream and blood glucose increases sharply.The taste of the fruit does not speak about the content of sugar in it.The most acidic fruits are a part of larger fruit acids, but almost the same amount of glucose, as well as the sweetest.Patients with diabetes should limit their intake of all types of fruit and berries.On the day you can eat a maximum of 200-300g.Completely abandon need from eating a banana, grapes, dried fruits.Compote and jelly is not very useful.If the beverage is prepared with sugar, it is completely excluded if the sugar is added, it is possible to drink one glass compote or jelly a day.The color of the fruit on the carbohydrate content is not affected.You can eat apples and red, and green, and yellow.Berries are useful only in small quantities.Bilberry is no exception.All fruit and vegetables is desirable to use separately from the main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) as snacks.Furthermore
monosaccharides, and polysaccharides exist, or complex carbohydrates.These carbohydrates are digested slowly, maintain a normal blood glucose level.In diabetes complex carbohydrates should be the basis of power.Somewhere half the calories (energy derived from food) must be received in the body it is with them.Complex carbohydrates are found in vegetables, flour, cereal products.Complex carbohydrates in these foods can be counted on the so-called grain unit at a special system.One bread unit contains 10-12 grams of carbohydrate.According to existing tables, patients should learn the content of such units in each meal. For once you can eat 2 to 7 grain units.Each meal should contain approximately equal amounts of carbohydrate units.
pasta, cereal, rice can be used by all patients.Porridge can have any, although semolina and not too useful.The pasta may be from different wheat varieties, not necessarily only of durum.Bread can
and white, and black, and bran.If you are overweight, it is better to be limited to two slices of bread (50 g) per day.
Vegetables are very useful in tm including diabetes.It is advisable to use a small amount of vegetables in every meal.Vegetable juice without sugar can be on the menu, but their number should not exceed 250-500 ml.
fats in the diet of diabetics
When diabetes is disturbed not only the carbohydrate metabolism, and the metabolism of fats in the body.This disorder leads to an increase of total cholesterol and its harmful fractions and triglycerides in the blood.These substances contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, and thus lead to heart attacks and strokes.Proper nutrition helps diabetics avoid such complications.
Harmful cholesterol is found in animal products.It is their number should be sharply limited.One has to choose lean meats and fish.All visible fat (fat) should be cleaned during cooking.Also remove and throw away the skin of poultry.Fatty meat broth is not recommended.Eggs are limited to two units per week.Canned meats (stews), you can take in food only occasionally.Meats almost never have to be on the table.Any variety of sausages, frankfurters, sausages has made up a lot of animal fat.Even though this variety is called "Doctor" or "diet".Dairy products, it is desirable to buy the lowest fat content (1.5% milk, cottage cheese, 0-5%, 0-1% kefir).Sour cream is completely excluded.Mayonnaise, butter, margarine is almost completely removed from the diet.Semi-finished products (cutlets, dumplings), it is desirable not to use.Vegetable oil does not contain cholesterol, but the amount still must not exceed a few tablespoons a day, as oil is a very high-calorie product.Olive, sunflower, corn oil is equally rich in vitamins and calories.To reduce the fat intake is recommended to the patient not to fry food, and eat boiled, stewed, steamed foods.
Protein foods for diabetes
Proteins are an important food item.Protein foods brings amino acids - the building material for our cells.If the protein has not been sufficient, reduced immunity, aging tissue, internal organs are affected.Diabetes patients is important to get enough protein from food.Vegetable proteins have in cereals, nuts, legumes.But the plant is not enough amino acids.Therefore food should NOT be vegetarian .In the menu, it is desirable to add dairy products, eggs, fish, poultry, lean meat.Only in case of severe complications from the kidney, patients with diabetes should limit protein in the diet.However, compliance with the "protein" diets (for example, the Kremlin diet), where limited carbohydrates and proteins are the basis of food for the patient with diabetes of any type and stage dangerous.
Features diet depending on the type of diabetes
When type 1 diabetes diet is a necessary measure.Unfortunately, when administered subcutaneously insulin does not act as a physiological conditions, and the patient has to adapt to these features action.
As for type 2 diabetes, a diet that can be called a complete treatment process.One diet is rarely used, since it is usually not enough when manifest disease.But proper nutrition helps to improve insulin sensitivity, ie to remove the very cause of the disease - insulin resistance.
In Type 1 diabetes, the main thing is to count carbohydrates in the system of grain units and, accordingly, with the results to adjust the dose of insulin before meals.It is important to abandon the simple carbohydrates, especially if you are using genetically engineered insulin preparations.
In type 2 disease the most important thing to limit the total calorie intake, do not overeat.If the patient will be able to lose weight with a diet therapy, you can expect a significant improvement in the disease course.It is important to limit the monosaccharides, but the counting of bread units, although it is recommended, but not too often necessary.
Diet is a daily necessity for diabetic patients.disease treatment success is largely dependent on the precision of nutritional advice.When different types of diabetes, diet is similar, although there are some differences.It is important to try to make their menu variety and enjoyment of dietary dishes, improving their taste by using spices, sauces, sweeteners.
endocrinologist Tsvetkova IG