Coriander ( cilantro ) useful properties
Synonyms: cilantro, kishnets field, bug-infested.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativu) - annual herb.His birthplace - the eastern Mediterranean.It has long been cultivated in many countries.Probably, coriander is the oldest known spices in the history of mankind.It is mentioned in the Old Testament and in ancient Sanskrit texts.Use it the ancient Greeks and Romans, from where it spread throughout Europe.Coriander is valued not only as a spice and medicinal plant, but also as an additive for wine.Its seeds have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs.The most widely grown in the Caucasus coriander called "cilantro".The food is most often used young leaves of coriander prior to the formation of fibrous plant stalks (of stem).
Description .This herb of the family celery (Apiaceae).Stem erect, rounded, top branched, up to 50-100 cm lower leaves petiolate, pinnate pinnatifid with large slices.;middle leaves bipinnate, and the upper dissected, narrow-linear.The flowers are white or pink, small.Calyx quinquedent
Medicinal raw : fruit.
Biological features. Coriander is not very demanding to heat, and therefore is cultivated even in the central regions of the CIS.However, the cold northern winds, this plant does not suffer.Coriander is very moisture-loving culture.With a lack of moisture in the soil it gives low yields.Seeds germinate slowly and it germinate slowly.
In content in coriander oil linalool Morfobiologichesky various forms of this culture are divided into three groups: Western European, which gives 66-80% linalool, Transcaucasian, giving 84-88%, and Asia Minor, giving up to 92%.In the Voronezh region, where there are big areas under coriander, sowing seeds produce Asia Minor Group.Small-fruited form coriander contain a higher percentage of essential oil than large-fruited.
Distribution. In the wild it grows in southern Europe on the Mediterranean coast.In the CIS, in the wild form is found in the Central Asian countries in the Caucasus and Crimea.
In the culture of coriander cultivated in Germany, Morocco, India and on.Cyprus.In the CIS cultivated in Voronezh and Kursk regions, in Ukraine, the Caucasus, Western Siberia.
chemical composition .Coriander seeds contain 0.6-1.0% essential oil, which includes 70% linalool, 20% fatty oils, proteins, starch, sugar, pinene, cymene, borneol, geraniol.The amount of essential oil varies depending on the variety of climatic conditions and from 0.18 to 1.18%, and linalool contents therein - from 60 to 74%.
Application. Coriander is widely used in the perfume, soap and confectionery industries, as well as in medicine for sdabrivaniya taste of medicines.Of particular importance are coriander seeds serving as raw material for obtaining the essential oil from which the linalool.The latter is the most important product in the perfume industry.
In the Caucasus and Uzbekistan leaves of this plant are used as a seasoning for food.Coriander is a good honey plant, giving a 1 hectare 300-500 kg of honey.
Waste coriander in a meal containing 17% protein, 7-8% fatty oils and up to 30% nitrogen-free extractives, are fed to livestock.Sometimes it cultivated, bred in the gardens as a spice plant.It also occurs as a weed in housing.
Agrotechnics cultivation.Site selection.The most favorable for coriander considered fertile black soil and light loam soils with sufficient moisture.The best precursors are tilled and winter crops, reaching fertilizer couples.
Tillage .If the precursors of coriander are winter crops, soon after they are cleaned shallow plowing, and three weeks required basic plowing to a depth of 22-27 cm. In early spring harrowed field, and then cultured before sowing with simultaneous harrowing.
fertilization.Under autumn plowing should be made at 15-20 t / ha of manure and 40-45 kg / ha of active ingredient phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.During the summer produce two feeding: the first before branching local organic fertilizers, and in the absence of the latter - mineral nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer at the rate of 30-40 kg / ha of active ingredient;second top dressing is made of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in the early flowering of 20-30 kg / ha of active ingredient.
reproduction. Coriander reproduces sowing seeds in the soil at the rate of 12-18 kg / ha in wide aisles with 45 cm and 20-25 kg / ha with a continuous drill seeding.Seeding depth is 4-5 cm. For speedy receipt of seedlings required air-thermal heating of seeds in the sun for three days.Sowing should be at the same time with early spring crops.
Care plantations.Since coriander seedlings appear soon, even before they occur must be combated with the crust and weeds.To this end, the seeds of coriander are added for orientation, such as a bit of buckwheat seeds, which germinate quickly.Care plantations is timely loosening of row spacing and weeding in rows.
Harvesting .Coriander should be cleaned with simple machines browning of fruits on 30-40%, and combine with the browning of fruits on 60-70%.Coriander, decorated with simple harvesting machines, tie in bundles, which are formed in Suslonov 50-60 units for drying.Cleaning machines produced during the maturation of seeds on 20-25%.This process reduces labor costs by 30%, reduced seed loss and fragmentation.Threshing produce bread threshers on the peaceful course of the fruits of coriander are not crushed.After threshing seeds purified by fanning mills and dried to 13% moisture.
Vintage coriander is an average of 6-8 kg / ha, and in the best farms harvested 15-20 t / ha or more.
Useful and therapeutic properties
From drug to use seeds (fruits).Color fruit gray or grayish-brown.Taste spicy, peculiar smell, pleasant.
fruits contain up to 1.2% essential oil, which includes linodal and terpene.
coriander seed essential oil has choleretic, analgesic, antiseptic, protivogemorroynyh, expectorant properties and increases appetite.It enhances granulation and secretion of digestive glands.
Preparations in the form of powder, infusion and tincture of coriander are used as improving digestion and choleretic agent in liver and gall bladder, flatulence, as an expectorant in diseases of the lungs as a means protivogemorroynyh and externally to treat wounds.Essential oil obtained by distillation from the fruit of steam is used as a substitute for oil some lavandnogo pharmaceuticals.In folk medicine, the fruits of coriander are used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as an aphrodisiac and regulates its activity means.In the past, extracts and tinctures of fruits used for the treatment of chronic disorders of the stomach, hemorrhoids, colds, wounds, and sugared fruit - to eliminate bad breath.
Coriander is used in perfumes, confectionery, bakery, alcoholic beverage and other industries.Young leaves of coriander, mostly called cilantro, are widely used as tabasco to various dishes.Greens contains a number of vitamins (C, P, PP, B1, B2).
cultivation in room conditions
varieties have a bit of coriander, the most common: Alexis 247, October 713, Ray Kish niches.They showed themselves well when grown indoors.
♦ Placement - windows with direct sunlight.Not afraid and penumbra.The plant is cold-resistant.During warmer months, boxes and pots of coriander should stand on balconies, terraces, loggias.The optimum temperature for growth of plants is +16 - + 17 ° C, but they grow well at higher temperatures.Shoots appear at 7 - 10 ° C.
♦ Planting and care.Coriander sowing is carried out as all the green, in a loose mixture of vegetable garden or flower ready substrate with high humus content "Rose".Features of planting and caring for crops similar to dill and described in the relevant section.
♦ Reproduction - seeds, one small box of 0.5 m2 requires 1,5 - 2 g of seeds.Planting depth of 1.5 - 2.5 cm
At room conditions when stepwise green coriander crops can be all year round..The raw coriander leaves are used as a seasoning for meat and fish dishes.They are used in the preparation of hot sauces are added to salads.Coriander seeds are widely used in the baking process.
coriander Medicinal properties have been known since ancient times.Ibn Sina (Avicenna) wrote that coriander "helps with dizziness, urticaria and other infirmities."Modern medicine has confirmed that the essential oil contained in the fruit, makes it soothing and antiseptic effect.In folk medicine coriander is used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative.Known effect of coriander to enhance activity of the digestive glands.Its application in large doses acts as an aphrodisiac.
For use green coriander essential oil varieties Ray, Change, Amber and local samples - population.coriander samples from Armenia, to distinguish good foliage and resistance of stem are especially appreciated.
Cultivation: coriander - cold-resistant culture.Young plants can withstand freezing down to -5-8 ° C.The seeds begin to germinate at b ° C.The most favorable temperature for the growth and development of plants within 22-25 ° C.The highest yield of green gives on sandy and loamy soils, non-acidic enough tucked organic fertilizers.Place the cilantro after potatoes, beans and other vegetable crops.The soil is prepared in the autumn of - dug to a depth of 20 cm, make 2-3 kg of manure, compost and fertilizers.In the spring the soil only loosen.
Seeds are sown in early spring, when the soil is still wet, which contributes to a friendly shoots.With a lack of moisture in the soil sprouts may be rare, the plants form a small rosette and quickly transferred to the of stem.Sowing common with aisles of 25-30 cm (60-70 cm large areas).Seeding depth - 1-2.
cm Care of crops is between the rows hoeing, weeding and watering 2-3 in the dry season.From germination to produce green passes 30-50 days, after which the plants begin to form a stem.By the time of harvesting the plants reach a height of 10-15 cm. For coriander seeds are sown in the spring in the first half of May, or before winter.
Collection: to have fresh herbs coriander throughout the summer and fall, you have to sow it in batches in 12-18 days.The shortest period to harvest greens from the June planting period.
Medicinal properties: stimulates the gastro-intestinal tract, stimulates the stomach, enhances the activity of digestive glands and thereby normalizes digestion.Essential oils have healing and soothing action.Coriander essential oil used in pharmaceutics for preparation of herbal medicines, which are used to improve digestion and against meteorism.
in cooking. Coriander enjoys an excellent reputation in many cuisines of the world.The Chinese say that it is their native plant, and even called him the Chinese parsley;in Mexico, where it is growing, it is often placed in a variety of dishes;from the Moroccan souks and carries coriander.But it is especially popular in the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the South of Spain.Coriander seeds - the main component of curry powder.Moreover, with their help suspend rotting meat and without coriander leaves difficult to many types of curry.Coriander also gives unparalleled taste and smell (if you know when to stop) mushroom dishes, meatballs, braised lamb and kebab lamb or pork.
When baking bread in flour milled grain is added, so that the product acquires an inimitable taste and smell, and the body is easier to digest starch.
coriander soup.This dish perfectly helps with stress, as it has carminative, warming and diuretic properties.It is recommended to relieve the symptoms of menopause and premenstrual tension, as well as fluid retention and cellulite.
To prepare the soup will be required:
sea salt Boil water with salt and olive oil.Add 2 sprigs of coriander leaves, as well as potatoes, onions, bay leaves, pour the lemon juice.Simmer for 1 5-20 minutes, until the potatoes are softened.
at the last moment, add the ground coriander seeds, pour some goat milk or put sour cream (optional).Mince the coriander leaves and before serving, sprinkle them soup.
seeds have a pleasant spicy scent reminiscent of anise, and initially pleasant, but later a sharp spicy taste.Use the coriander in the production of liqueurs, sausages, in the perfume industry, and in England and Germany - for beer production.Coriander is a part of different wafers used by smokers to eliminate the odor.
1 liter of beverage, '20 coriander fruit, 800 g of water, 120 g sugar, 200 g of grape juice (juice can be different)
Coriander pour boiling water and cooka sealed container at low boil for 20-30 minutes, to insist 10-15 minutes and strain.Add the sugar and cook for another 2-3 minutes.After cooling, pour the chilled grape juice
In cooking herbs and coriander seeds are used in salads, rice, roast pork, stewed apples and for the preservation of fruit, it is added to the dough in vegetable dishes, sauces, goulash and somefish.Many use coriander for producing various sausages and meat products.He added to honey cakes, marzipan and various biscuits.Coriander improves the taste of meals of peas, beans and lentils.Add it to the cabbage, pâtés, game and poultry, red beets, applesauce, carrots and stuffing for stuffed poultry.
Cilantro use in the bakery, confectionery and canning industry, in a variety of workpieces, marinades, for sauces and condiments.Cilantro - a real storehouse of vitamins, especially carotene and ascorbic acid.It is used in medicine for the treatment of scurvy, part of the choleretic tea improves digestion.