Chamomile useful properties
Useful and therapeutic properties of pyrethrum tsinerarielistnogo (Dalmatian chamomile)
Synonyms: daisy pepelnolistnaya.
description. perennial plant grayish-silver aster family (Asteraceae) height of about 50-80 cm. Rhizome large, mostly with a many-headed root deepening in the ground at 2-3 m, and a large number of adventitious roots.In the first year of culture develops socket with a variety of basal leaves.In the second year it formed 40-100 or more stems.Leaves petiolate, double- and trizhdyperistorassechennye, on top of the gray-green leaves, and the bottom ash-gray.Inflorescence - basket diameter of up to 5-6 cm, consisting of marginal reed sterile female flowers in white and mid bisexual tubular yellow flowers.Fruit - small narrow ribbed achene.Blossoms in May-June.The fruits ripen in June and July.Weight of 1000 seeds - 0.5-1.2 g
Medicinal raw : inflorescences and upper parts stebley-
Biological features. Daisy Dalmatian - drought-resistant plant.On the one hand, it can withstand dro
locus. grows in the mountains at an altitude of 500-2000 m above sea level, on stony, well-lit, and dry limestone hillsides.
Distribution .Feverfew tsinerarielistny wild growing in Yugoslavia, Albania and Greece.In the southern regions of Ukraine it is grown as a medicinal (insecticide) plant.Sometimes runs wild (Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhye, Crimea and other regions).
chemical composition. aboveground plant parts contain pyrethrins, tsineriny, essential oil, flavonoid glycosides, phytosterols, sesquiterpene lactones and fatty acids.
Application. tsinerarielistny Pyrethrum is used as insecticide.Its insecticidal properties are due to the presence of pyrethrins and tsinerinov being poison contact action.For plants, warm blooded animals and humans, they are not harmful.Powder flower baskets (feverfew) and uaytspiritovuyu tincture (flizid) used to combat bedbugs, fleas, lice, cockroaches, flies, mosquitoes, pests of vegetable and fruit crops, and animal parasites.
contains alkaloids anulin.In folk medicine, a decoction of herbs drink with gastric diseases, as calming the nervous system, as a laxative, while female diseases, from cables.
Infusion: 2 hours spoon grass with flower baskets to insist 4 hours per 1 cup of boiling water, take 1 tbsp..spoon 3-4 times a day.
Drink infusion and hernia, cold, cough, fever, relaxation of the bladder, when small and flat worms.Topical infusion is used for skin rashes.
Agrotehnika growing. site selection.Feverfew tsinerarielistny grows in one place for more than 8 years, but the most productive period is from 3 to six years of culture.Therefore it is better to place on nearby areas and if not, then in areas with flat terrain and deep groundwater table.
For most plants do not swim suit fertile black soils of light texture, with good structure.On the heavy low-lying and sandy soils it grows poorly.The best precursors in field crop rotations are winter fertilizer couple, early legumes and row crops.
Tillage. If the field is used after the winter, preparing the ground for a daisy Dalmatian conducted on the system autumn plowing with preliminary shallow plowing.The depth of plowing -. 25-27 cm after plowing on the cultivated crops plowing is carried out immediately after cleaning.In early spring harrowed field, before sowing is cultivated and harrowed a second time.If the field is poorly treated or insufficiently compacted soil over the winter, there should be a harrowing and rolling away.This treatment promotes the formation of fine lumpy structure, correct (shallow) embedding the seed and seedling emergence amicable.
fertilization. main fertilizer is manure (20-25 t / ha).With its lack can be half fertilizers.
Reproduction .Propagated mostly by seeds, which are sown in spring, immediately after the start of field work.Seeds pre-soaked for 7-8 hours in water at room temperature.Seeding rate - 6-7 kg / ha, embedding depth -. 2-3 cm seeds are not buried at sowing before winter, and sprinkle with humus 1 cm thick, and the seeding rate is increased by 10-15%.Feverfew popolosno recommended sown with winter crops.For this purpose crops sown strips spaced 70-100 cm. During the spring wind storms protect winter crops pyrethrum from blowing and drifting soil.On the liberated after harvest of winter crops sown bands next spring Pyrethrum.
Care plantations first year of culture is reduced to the systematic cultivation and weeding of weeds.During the summer, spend 4-5 times machining between rows and 2-3 weeding.Sharuyut winter crops in early spring and spring - immediately after emergence (at a depth of 5-6 cm), the first year of the plantation culture of the second loosen the soil after emergence, and on the transition - after the appearance of the stems (to a depth of 10-12 cm).During the first sharovaniya seedlings fed, introducing the 1 hectare of 60 kg of phosphorus and 30 kg of nitrogen and potassium nutrient.
Harvesting. inflorescences collected romashkosobirayuschi E-machines as soon bloom at least half of tubular flowers.Cutting height of not less than 20-25 cm.
drying. Dried material in attics, under a tin roof or in the dryer, in a clear pogodu.- in the sun, spread out on the canvas.If the plant is harvested from the stems, the crop first podvyalivayut in heaps, the next day dumped on a current drying.Dried chamomile stacks and cover with straw, to avoid moisture.The average yield of dry inflorescences of 5-6 t / ha, sometimes reaching 10-15.
Packaging. flowers are packed in bags and stems, hay pressed conventional press - in bales.
Storage .In a dry, well-ventilated area.
Quality requirements. Raw materials must comply with the requirements of GOST 2628-53.In commodity weight chamomile flower baskets allowed: Moisture - 12%, brownish pieces - 5%, flower baskets with peduncles longer than 2 cm - 5% of organic impurities (parts of other plants) - 2.5%, mineral - 1%.Entire flower baskets must be at least 65%, pyrethrin in flower baskets - not less than 0.3%;biological activity of flower baskets - 10 minutes, and for the flower baskets with peduncles - 15 min.(Biological activity determined by the time during which the flies die, the plants treated with the powder finely ground).For insecticidal powder finely ground dried flowers are ground in special stone mortar.The finer the grind, the greater the toxicity of the powder.
Growing seeds. To do this, or lay special areas or isolated plantation with the best herbage.Seeds harvested at the stage of wax ripeness specially equipped harvesters.Cut florets collected on a tarp or burlap and dried on current threshed threshing and winnowing machines clean with bringing to sowing conditions.The average seed yield - 2-7 tons / ha.