Synonyms: chamomile, daisy common daisy wild.
plants Characteristics : annual fragrant herb with branched stems. Camomile different from other types of strong aromatic smell and hollow inside oblong-conical receptacle.
description. An annual herb of the family Asteraceae (Asteraceae) with erect, very branched stem 25-50 cm tall. Taproot slender, light-brown color.Leaves twice pinnate into narrow linear part, alternate, 2-5 cm long, sessile.Flower baskets are made with white edge reed and yellow tubular flowers middle with a pleasant smell, on long stalks.Receptacle without films and bristles, bare, hollow.At the beginning of flowering, it is flat, and in the end - conical than and different from the other receptacle daisies that have medicinal properties (from the camomile flower baskets more with a full, not hollow (hollow) receptacle).Fruit - a bit bent small achene.Weight of 1000 seeds - 0.04-0.06, the blooms from May to late autumn.
Biological features. Chamomile drug - light - and water-lov
locus. chamomile grows in meadows, fields, near roads like a weed, it prefers sandy soils.
Distribution. Chamomile grows in small bushes almost the entire territory of Ukraine, in gardens, on vacant lots near the road.Relatively large amounts were only prisivashskoy of the Crimea and the Black Sea region of Kherson region, on saline grasslands and fallow lands, as well as crops.Chamomile is cultivated.Besides chamomile and chamomile bezyazychkovuyu harvested in the wild.
chemical composition. chamomile flowers contain about 0.8% blue-colored essential oil, the main component of which is a specific active substance hamazulen.Besides the essential oil in the flowers of chamomile present apigetsinglikozidy, coumarin compounds (umbeliferon and its methyl ester herniarin) sitosterol, choline, vitamin C, (3-carotene, organic acids, polysaccharides, mineral salts. It is noted that chamomile has chemical race,such as those that do not contain prohamazulena or bisabolol, so high-quality raw materials moyaset ensure only the cultivation of varieties with a high content of these compounds.
Medicinal raw materials are the flowers in baskets without peduncles, collected at the beginning of flowering, when the marginal ligulate flowers in baskets are arranged horizontally.Collection is carried out in dry weather. Raw materials (baskets) quickly dried in a well ventilated room or in a dryer at a temperature of 40 ° C.
Agrotehnika growing. site selection. By daisy drug is withdrawn clean plots without weeds, because the crops it low andeasily drowned out by them.More useful are the fertile black soil loamy medium textured.Best predecessors - fallow, winter wheat, which run on pure steam, row crops and legumes.
Tillage. If a daisy field aside from under the winter, after their acquisition is carried out shelling, and in September - plowing on plowing to a depth of 22-25 cm with simultaneous nym harrowing.When weeds spend 1-2 cultivation to a depth of 5-7 cm. If the precursors are row crops, then plowed immediately after collection.Seedbed work should be carried out with particular care to provide friendly shoots.In addition to cultivating and harrowing apply even grinding and compacting.
fertilization. the main plowing or more frequently under the previous culture, making 30-40 t / ha of manure.If manure is not enough in the economy, the good results are obtained with simultaneous application of organic and mineral fertilizers at the rate of 15-20 t / ha of manure and 45 kg / ha of active ingredient of phosphate fertilizers.In the spring fed nitrogen fertilizer (25-30 kg / ha).
reproduction. Daisy can be sown in three terms: early spring, for 1-1.5 months before the onset of cold weather (winter crops) or a few days before frost (podzimny seeding).It is better to sow in the winter time, but good results are obtained and podzimny sowing.Seeding rate - 2.0-2.5 kg / ha;and for sowing podzimnego - 3 kg / ha.The depth of embedding seeds - 0.5-1 cm, they are not embedded with podzimny sowing.Sowing Seed spend way aisles with 45 cm.
Care plantations. first sharovanie between rows is performed when a seedling cultivators equipped with legs (razors), not to fill very small seedlings plant the ground.When the shoots get stronger, hand weeding in rows.In the future, the field is maintained in a loose condition, clean from weeds.
Harvesting. Chamomile flowers are collected in the beginning of flowering using special railway rakes, shovels or hand grabbing flowers between the fingers of the right hand and the left hand at the same time cutting off the long stems and stalks.Scallops collect flowers much faster, but the quality of raw materials is better for manual assembly.First flowers collected every 1-2 days, and then - 4-5 (up to 6 times in the summer).
drying. collected flowers spread in a thin layer at the rate of 1 kg of raw flowers per 1 m2 of drying area.Usually chamomile dried in the shade, in attics, under a tin roof or firing kilns at a temperature of 45 ° C.The average yield of dry baskets is 5-10 t / ha.
Packaging. chamomile drug should be packing in wet weather, ie. A. Very very dry flowers crumble.Raw packed in plywood or wooden boxes of 20 kg.Inside the lining of the wrapping paper.
Storage. Raw materials should be stored in a well ventilated dry place, t. To. Chamomile flowers hygroscopic.Dried under a canopy or in the attic with good ventilation.Store in paper bags in a dry place for 1 year.
to quality requirements.Raw materials must meet the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia XI (FS-7, pp. 239-241).
assign specific areas in which the seeds are sown elite For seed.All work carried out in these areas at a high agrotechnical level and at the optimum time.If you can not take special sections, then assign the best areas of production plantations with a good, smooth herbage, weed-free.
Collect flower baskets begin when most plant extreme white flowers will fall down, and the receptacle will get an elongated shape.Chamomile cut off in the morning, when the dew falls, and tie into small snopiki, who immediately sent out to dry under the canopy.After drying snopiki threshed and purified on a sieve with holes of 1.5-2 mm in diameter.Store raw materials (seeds) should be in a dry, well-ventilated place in the bins or bags.The average yield is about 0.8-1.0 t / ha.
Chamomile is used as an infusion into as an antispasmodic agent in diseases of the digestive system, spastic colitis, gastritis, to stimulate bile secretion, also used for rinsing the mouth and throat with tonsillitis, laryngitis.Colitis and hemorrhoids emulsion used in the form of enema.
Daisy - one of the most valuable medicinal plants, chemical composition, which results in a wide range of its therapeutic features.chamomile drug increases the secretory activity of digestive glands, stimulate zhelchevydeleshie and stimulate appetite, relieve spasms of the abdominal cavity (reduced), reduce the formation of gas in the intestines, showing dermotonicheskoe, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect, reduces itching, increase perspiration, regulate menstruation acts asantiallergic agent.
Application chamomile is most effective in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and spasms of the urinary tract, flatulence, liver diseases, especially in cholelithiasis, with children's diarrhea, accompanied by pain, colic and flatulence, in violation of the menstrual cycle, painful menstruation and inflammatorydiseases of the female genital organs, nausea in pregnant women.As
adjuvant used in the daisy gastric hyperacidity, gastric and duodenal ulcers, ulcerative inflammation of the intestine, and in conjunction with other drugs - chronic inflammation of the urinary tract, especially the renal glomeruli and bladder.Chamomile flowers are part of a carminative tea, softening teas for gargling mixture.
For external use of chamomile products exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-microbial, epithelizing, antimycotic and anti-allergic effect.A decoction of chamomile flowers is used for rinsing (several times a day) when aphthosis, inflammation of the mucous membranes in throat, gums and mouth rinsing purulent wounds, ulcers and hemorrhoids, for compresses and lotions with conjunctivitis, occupational dermatitis, inflammation of the skin and boils, todouching with coleitis, vulva and endocervicitis.
gruel of chamomile inflorescences treat skin cancer (make a poultice on the affected area).The infusion of chamomile inflorescences used in oil (hot) for rubbing with arthritic and rheumatic pains, compresses to the neck for the loss of voice.Pharmacies have romazulan drug (Romasulan), which is prescribed for gastritis, colitis and other diseases involving flatulence and externally - with inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, the external ear, with vaginitis, urethritis, cystitis, inflammatory dermatoses, trophic ulcers.
Camomile tea 15 g of raw material brewed 200 ml of boiled water, 4 hours, take 0.5 cup 2 times a day.Medical enema, 1 tbsp.l.vegetable oil mixed with 100 ml of broth chamomile (6 g per 200 ml water).
The flowers contain essential oil.The composition of essential oils include hamazulen, terpene, sesquiterpene, sesquiterpene alcohols and others.
Infusion flower baskets has anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, antiseptic, subastrigent, analgesic, sedative, anticonvulsant, diaphoretic, choleretic action.Chamomile essential oil has a disinfectant and diaphoretic action, reduces gas formation, relieves pain, reduces inflammation, normalizes impaired function of the gastrointestinal tract, a stimulant effect on the central nervous system: strengthens and increases the rate of respiration, increases heart rate, dilates vessels of the brain.High doses of essential oils cause headaches and general weakness.
chamazulene, part of the essential oil, and its synthetic analogs are used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, rheumatism, allergic gastritis and colitis, eczema, burns, X-rays.
In scientific medicine chamomile preparations are used inside as a sedative and anti-spasmodic agent for intestinal cramps, flatulence, as a laxative and, conversely, for the treatment of diarrhea, as an antiseptic and analgesic.Externally - as a weak antiseptic astringent and anti-inflammatory agent in the form of rinses, baths, enemas, lotions, poultices.
In folk medicine chamomile is used as a sedative (as a tea) as protivospazmatiches-something, analgesic, choleretic, diaphoretic, diuretic, carminative and anti-inflammatory agent in disme-noree, cramps bowel, gastritis, enteritis, flatulence, inflammation of the liver andgallbladder, kidney, bladder, in hysteria, nervousness and convulsions, trigeminal neuralgia, colds, even with a fever, and malaria.
Topical preparations of chamomile used for any inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, in erysipelas, abscesses, boils, wounds and ulcers, diseases of the eye, in the form of baths for rheumatism and gout;with frostbite, burns and hair loss.
drugs: infusion of flower baskets, daisy water, tea and powder.
Smell dry chamomile do not like a mouse.
Daisy use for washing the hair of dandruff and give your hair a golden hue.4 tbsp.spoon of dried flowers boiled for 5 minutes in 1.5 liters of water, strain and rinse hair after washing.For coloring gray hair in a light tone 1 part chamomile brewed with boiling water and 3 parts in a well-sealed container insist 2-3 hours.This infusion rinsed hair after washing.For a more intense color soaked hair infusion of chamomile close kerchief on 40-60 minutes, then dried.
Infusion : 20 g per 200 ml;2-3 Art.spoons 3-4 times a day - as anti-inflammatory bowel disease.
The same infusion - for lotions with seborrheic dermatitis.They can also gargle with inflammation of the mouth and throat.
Broth: 1 tbsp.brew a spoon in a glass of boiling water, filtered after cooling.Take 1- 2 tbsp.spoon 3-4 times a day (carminative), or used for rinsing (tonsillitis, stomatitis) and enemas (colitis).
powder (crushed leaves and flowers). 2 grams, or half teaspoon, 3 times a day.
Bath: 50 g per bucket of boiling water with scrofula, and in gout and rheumatism, tumors of the hands and feet - 200 g of grass on a bucket of water with 1 cup salt.
proved chamazulene significant effect, especially for inflammation resulting from exposure.
In New York, usually served camomile tea with sugar and cream (15 g per 1 liter, insist 15 minutes);drunk at night, he is a strong, peaceful sleep.
chamomile tea: 15 g of dried flowers to insist 15 minutes in boiling water 1.To drink with sugar and cream on the night.
Healing Properties: This drink is strong restful sleep.
Chamomile balm for dry hair
Wanted: 1 tbsp.l.vodka, 125 g of lanolin, 15 g of camomile, 250 ml of water.
Method. Chamomile pour boiling water, leave for 30 minutes.The lanolin add chamomile infusion, heat, but do not bring to a boil.A little cool and add vodka.pour into a tightly closable Ready cream jar (keep in the refrigerator), and slightly before use, heat in a water bath.
application method. applied to the hair and scalp for an hour before washing.
bath of chamomile, peppermint, sage, fennel, linden flower
required.1 liter of beer, 1 tbsp.l.dill herb, 1 tbsp.l.linden flowers, 1 tbsp.l.chamomile flowers, 1 tbsp.l.herb mint, 1 tbsp.l.herb sage.
Method. Mix all herbs and pour the hot beer.Leave the infusion for 20-25 minutes, strain and put in a cool place.Then pour infusion into a deep bowl.
application method. Keep your hands in the infusion for 20 minutes.
bath of chamomile and flax
required.2 tbsp.l.flax seeds, 2 tbsp.l.chamomile flowers, 1 l.beer.
method for preparing .Mix ingredients and add the beer.Then put on fire and boil for 30 minutes.The resulting broth cool for 5-10 minutes.Strain.
application method. Keep your hands in the broth for 25 minutes.
Infusion of flowers chamomile with honey
Prepare infusion of chamomile flowers 1:10, which take 25 grams (6 tablespoons. Tablespoons) of dried flowers, pour them in an enamel pot of 500 ml of boiling water, cover and put on 15 minutesin a boiling water bath.Then give the infusion to cool, strain it, and the remaining raw materials squeeze and bring the volume of boiled water to 500 ml.Dissolve it in 2 tbsp.